Collective sanctions have long been a contested instrument of international politics, especially since 1990, when United States and large power use of the technique increased to the point where Richard Haass declared that a “sanctions epidemic” had emerged (Haass & O'Sullivan, 1999). Regional bodies, most notably by the European Union (EU), paralleled this trend through a dramatic increase in their own resort to sanctions (Kreutz, 2005). The imposition of sanctions by the United Nations (UN) reached the point that, in comparison to pre-1989 behavior, the 1990s were labeled “the sanctions decade” (Cortright & Lopez, 2000).
Brzoska, M. and Lopez, G.A. (2009), "Introduction", Brzoska, M. and Lopez, G.A. (Ed.) Putting Teeth in the Tiger: Improving the Effectiveness of Arms Embargoes (Contributions to Conflict Management, Peace Economics and Development, Vol. 10), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. xiii-xxiv. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1572-8323(2009)0000010004
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