This study considers the structure of PISA penetration into education policy through a comparative analysis of Japan and Norway. Many studies on PISA’s impact tend to emphasize the character of PISA result as a norm, such as the concept of “governance by comparison.” This study regards PISA as a norm of educational contents and analyzes the structure of PISA penetration into educational contents policy, with respect to the national curriculum. In describing the situations around PISA in the two countries, the background of the acceptance of PISA, the nature of national curriculum in education policy and its character, and the structure of PISA penetration with the focus being on how PISA is integrated into the national curriculum are analyzed through related documents and literatures. As a result of comparative analysis, three common features are found. First of all, PISA penetration occurred in the context of “PISA Shock” since the importance of PISA itself was recognized. Second, the system of management by objectives was included in the educational system and PISA penetrated into that system as objectives. Third, in relation with this second point, PISA as a norm of educational contents was integrated into existing educational goals or subjects. These features are evident only in the comparison of two countries, so a deeper analysis of PISA penetration will be needed in a future study.
I would like to thank all the members of the collaborative research group supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP24330238, especially the principal investigator, President Akira Ninomiya at Hijiyama University in Japan. I also wish to thank Professor emeritus Svein Sjøberg at the University of Oslo for cooperating with my research in Norway. In addition, funding from JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP 16H03770 and JP16K13521 are gratefully acknowledged.
Sato, H. (2017), "The Structure of PISA Penetration into Education Policy in Japan and Norway", The Impact of the OECD on Education Worldwide (International Perspectives on Education and Society, Vol. 31), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 209-230. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-367920160000031011
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