Reports and studies conducted in Rwanda and in the region (East Africa) reveal trending impetus in empowerment of marginalized citizens, but expose controversies in policy implementation and outcomes. The present paper thus departs from an overview of the African socio-political landscape, and delves into an investigation of Rwanda's five year inclusive education policy (2019–2024) strategies. It interrogates its implementation in the country's 9 Year Basic Education (9YBE) program that worn the Common Wealth award for its accommodation of youths with disabilities and other educationally disadvantaged groups. The study design combines both literature and field surveys by drawing from documented legal frameworks, reports and field data to generate triangulated or reliable findings. Respondents were identified through dependable informants and predetermined criteria. Purposively designed observation check lists and interview protocols were employed to systematically draw data from both central (Ministry of Education) and local levels (schools, communities and families). The study findings reveal little explored research avenues, and a blend of both international and local perspectives that are important to disability and inclusive education orientations in the African sub-region.
Karangwa, E. (2022), "Stifled or Loosened Course of Inclusive Education in Rwanda:
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