While there is an increasing understanding of the challenges that can emerge in integration processes of cross-border mergers and acquisitions, there is a scarcity of research on how the different integrative activities should be temporally sequenced. Based on an in-depth analysis of three acquisitions, we find that structural and cultural integration are intertwined. We find that cultural integration will begin only once structural integration is in progress. Cultural differences can, however, impede structural integration if structural integration is done in conflict with the existing culture of the acquired company. Thus, structural integration should come first, but it should be done in appreciation with the acquired company’s existing culture. Cultural change is then facilitated in an iterative manner over time by the new structure. Our chapter contributes to an improved understanding of the temporal dynamics of integration by demonstrating the mutually reinforcing effects of structural and cultural integration in cross-border acquisitions.
Teerikangas, S. and Laamanen, T. (2014), "Structure First! Temporal Dynamics of Structural and Cultural Integration in Cross-Border Acquisitions", Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions (Advances in Mergers & Acquisitions, Vol. 13), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 109-152. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-361X20140000013005
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