Several theories suggest transformations in citizen participation. Putnam and many others suggest a decline in participation. By adding issue specificity, we find that the arts and culture are a major exception: they are rising in many countries and contexts.
Clark, T. and Achterberg, P. (2014), "Culture is on the Rise – Why? Theories of Cultural Participation and Empirical Evidence", Can Tocqueville Karaoke? Global Contrasts of Citizen Participation, the Arts and Development (Research in Urban Policy, Vol. 11), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 221-235. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-352020140000011026Download as .RIS
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