Organizational studies fail to examine organizations in terms of the several environments in which they operate, both internally and externally. That is, studies tend to focus on climate, or time, or trust, or leadership. This chapter builds on academic research that discusses organizational environments in ways that show all of these environments are important for organizational understanding, especially for organizational leadership. In particular, this chapter offers a paradigm of understanding organizational leadership realities through multi-level understanding of the organizational environments of climate, knowledge, ethnos, and time.
The chapter first discusses five enviroscapes – climate, knowledge, ethos, time, and leadership. Each of these enviroscapes has two phenotypes – business and commerce. Each of these enviroscapes, with its concomitant phenotypes, is used differently at multiple levels of management and leadership by senior managers, middle managers, and entry-level managers. The scope of organizational reach, in terms of global, regional, and local levels of analysis, provides additional context for the use of enviroscapes. After a review of the theoretical bases for each enviroscape, the chapter applies appropriate theory and models to an extended time case study of land purchase in Indonesia.
Reeves-Ellington, R. (2009), "Enviroscapes: a multi-level contextual approach to organizational leadership", Yammarino, F.J. and Dansereau, F. (Ed.) Multi-Level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Leadership (Research in Multi-Level Issues, Vol. 8), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 337-420. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1475-9144(2009)0000008015
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