Mumford, Friedrich, Hunter, and Caughron (2009) propose a multilevel theory of leadership intended to allow for the emergence and performance of charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic leaders. In their commentaries, Hunt and Davis (2009) and Simonton (2009) provide additional support for this model. Their observations also broach questions about how charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic leadership styles should be measured, and how hypotheses should be developed with regard to multilevel influence on leader emergence and performance. This commentary discusses the implications of these observations for future research on styles of outstanding leadership.
Mumford, M., Caughron, J. and Friedrich, T. (2009), "Charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic leadership: where we are, and where do we need to go?", Yammarino, F. and Dansereau, F. (Ed.) Multi-Level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Leadership (Research in Multi-Level Issues, Vol. 8), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 135-143. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1475-9144(2009)0000008007Download as .RIS
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