Theories of outstanding, historically notable, leadership have traditionally emphasized charisma. Recent research, however, suggests that charisma may represent only one pathway to outstanding leadership. Outstanding leadership may also emerge from ideological and pragmatic leadership. In this article, we examine the conditions influencing the emergence and performance of charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic leaders. It is argued that different conditions operating at the environmental, organizational, group, and individual levels influence the emergence and performance of each of these three types of leaders. Implications for understanding the origins and impact of charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic leaders are discussed.
Mumford, M., Hunter, S., Friedrich, T. and Caughron, J. (2009), "Charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic leadership: An examination of multi-level influences on emergence and performance", Yammarino, F. and Dansereau, F. (Ed.) Multi-Level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Leadership (Research in Multi-Level Issues, Vol. 8), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 79-116. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1475-9144(2009)0000008004Download as .RIS
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