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Revisiting Uppsala through the Lenses of New Ventures: A Longitudinal Study of Norwegian Firms

International Marketing in the Fast Changing World

ISBN: 978-1-78560-233-7, eISBN: 978-1-78560-232-0

Publication date: 24 October 2015



To analyze the internationalization pattern of newly established firms in view of Johanson and Vahlne’s (1977, 2009) contributions.


We analyze all 2,390 Norwegian new ventures established in 2003 that export in the period 2003–2011.


We find three different groups of exporters in this cohort: the True Born Globals that start exporting the same year as they are established, and that export further away and to more countries than the other groups. We surmise that these firms fit the revised version of the Uppsala school of internationalization (Johanson & Vahlne, 2009) and are less hindered by “liability of outsidership.” The second group, Born Regionals, export already the second year after foundation, but to countries closer to Norway but to more than one country. Late-comers – starting three years after foundation or later – follow a more traditional path to international markets more in accordance with the original contribution by Johanson and Vahlne (1977).

Research limitations

Our analyses are based on secondary data provided by Statistics Norway. Whereas this gives us data on the total population, we lack information on more specific factors that may explain this pattern more precisely.


This is to our knowledge the first contribution that tests elements of the Uppsala school (pace of international expansion and psychic distance) in a country’s total population of newly founded firms.



Gripsrud, G., Hunneman, A. and Solberg, C.A. (2015), "Revisiting Uppsala through the Lenses of New Ventures: A Longitudinal Study of Norwegian Firms", International Marketing in the Fast Changing World (Advances in International Marketing, Vol. 26), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 1-14.



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