Originality/value of paper – The contribution of this chapter is two-fold: First, it shows that to enable estimation, it is often necessary to modify (i.e., expand) the original theoretical model in a conceptually reasonable manner and to do so before data collection. Second, it demonstrates that alternative scaling options for composite latent variables may result in inconsistent substantive conclusions. Consequently, the impact of formative measurement on theory testing is a critical topic and needs to receive further attention in future literature.
Diamantopoulos, A. and Riefler, P. (2011), "Using Formative Measures in International Marketing Models: A Cautionary Tale Using Consumer Animosity as an Example", Sarstedt, M., Schwaiger, M. and Taylor, C.R. (Ed.) Measurement and Research Methods in International Marketing (Advances in International Marketing, Vol. 22), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 11-30. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1474-7979(2011)0000022004
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