Index

The Politics of Inequality

ISBN: 978-1-83909-363-0, eISBN: 978-1-83909-362-3

ISSN: 0895-9935

Publication date: 19 July 2021

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2021), "Index", Pettinicchio, D. (Ed.) The Politics of Inequality (Research in Political Sociology, Vol. 28), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 263-273. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0895-993520210000028014

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 by Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Activism

diaspora
, 157

environmental justice
, 249–252

institutional
, 27

online
, 227–229

political
, 75–76

youth
, 217–221

Activist(s)

careers
, 238–239, 245–246

hierarchy to movements
, 243

recruitment and participation
, 243

Affordable Care Act (ACA). See Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010)

African National Congress
, 242

Age
, 216

age-based expectations
, 217–221

as deterrent for action
, 222–225

legal age for political participation
, 224–225

Agenda
, 6, 16

policy plank on
, 5–6

transnational
, 247

on tuition policies
, 71

AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP)
, 140

Al Qaeda
, 156

Al-Nusra
, 156

Allgemeiner Studierendenausschuss (AStA)
, 75

American Federation of Teachers (AFT)
, 209

American public policy
, 6

Amplification of antiinequality frame
, 11–13

Antiausterity demonstrators
, 184, 190

Antiauthoritarian Filipino activism
, 158–159

Antiequality conservative ideology
, 142

Antiextremism advocacy and outreach
, 164–165

Antiinequality frame

amplification, legitimization, and cooptation of
, 11–13

legitimation and “discursive resources”
, 12–13

Antiinequality messaging, democratic party adoption of
, 14–16

Antisystemic socialization
, 248

Arab Spring

diaspora mobilization for
, 161–165

revolutionary
, 159

Yemeni mobilization in response to
, 165–168

Arab-Muslim majority
, 156

Arizona Education Association (AEA)
, 202

Arizona Educators United (AEU)
, 204, 206, 208

Assertive action
, 69–70

Attitude
, 49–51

change and polarization over time
, 55–57

Basic pension scheme
, 62

Benevolent coercion
, 102

Bernie Sanders campaign
, 17–18

Biographical barriers
, 187

Biological reproduction
, 117

Bipartite strategy
, 34

Bismarckian-type transfer programs
, 53

Black LGBTQ people

limited representation
, 145–147

in United States
, 143

Black MSM
, 139

inequality and lived experience of Black MSM with HIV
, 136–137

Black Panther Party
, 71–72

Black Reconstruction
, 136

British Petroleum (BP)
, 29–30

California Air Resources Board (CARB)
, 30–31

California climate policymaking
, 27–28

California’s climate law
, 25

California’s San Joaquin Valley, Rural Latinx women in
, 122–124

Cap-and-trade program
, 24, 31, 35

Carceral family work
, 127–130

types of
, 128–130

Caught in Act of Protest Study
, 179

CCC study
, 179, 181–182

Center for American Progress (CAP)
, 20

Center-right Christian Democrats (CDU)
, 74–75

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
, 139

Child Tax Credit (CTC)
, 97–98

CHP
, 76

Climate change policy in United States
, 24

climate policymaking in California
, 29–34

data and methods
, 34–35

social movement and interest group theory
, 26–29

state policymakers as “institutional activists”
, 33–34

understanding limited influence of justice-oriented movement
, 35–39

Climate policymaking in California
, 29–34

“green business” and policy preferences
, 32

investor-owned utilities’ policy preferences
, 32–33

state policymakers as “institutional activists”
, 33–34

Co-pollutants
, 30–31, 36

Coalition politics
, 24

Coalition power
, 29

Coalition-building
, 250

Coalitions include non-movement actors
, 36–37

Coefficient of variation (CV)
, 52

Coercive rehabilitation
, 93–94

Coercive turn of neoliberalism
, 116–117

Cold War
, 157

Collective action
, 69, 71

frames
, 10

student-led collective action
, 72

Collective identity
, 185

College students
, 227–229

Combat authoritarianism
, 156

“Command-and-control” regulations
, 24

Communities of fate
, 205

Community standards
, 196

Comparative method
, 70

Comparative research
, 92

Comparative welfare state literature
, 50

Computational method
, 70, 77

Continued partisan politicization
, 16–18

Control variables
, 52

Cooptation of antiinequality frame
, 11–13

Cost–benefit analysis
, 205

Countermovements
, 26–27

Court-based diversion programs
, 101–102

COVID-19 epidemic
, 137

Creative disappointment theory
, 242–256

Crime
, 92

Criminal legal developments
, 93

Criminal legal supervision
, 101–103

Crises of social reproduction
, 115–116

carceral familywork among women of color in Southern California
, 127–130

caring for families in unincorporated communities
, 124–127

Latinas confronting family planning cutbacks in Texas’ Rio Grande Valley
, 118–119

policy impacts and hardships
, 120–122

unincorporated lives
, 122–124

Cultures of inequality
, 118

Deficit-based criticism
, 218

Democracy
, 238

embodiments
, 238

history
, 257

scholarship
, 238

students
, 244

Democrat from Illinois
, 163

Democratic disappointments
, 246, 249, 252, 256

Democratic movement
, 242

Democratic Party
, 4

adoption of antiinequality messaging
, 14–16

platform
, 4

Democratic themes
, 243

Demonization of Black
, 92

Detention
, 101

Diaspora
, 156

activism
, 157

antiextremism advocacy and outreach
, 164–165

case selection, data, and analytical procedures
, 159–160

diaspora mobilization for Arab Spring
, 161–165

mobilization
, 157–159

Syrian associations combat discrimination abroad
, 162–164

Diffusion of antiinequality frame
, 12

Disability Insurance
, 96

Disadvantaged unincorporated communities (DUCs)
, 122

Discursive eruption
, 8, 11–12

Discursive opportunity structure
, 12

Discursive resources, legitimation and
, 12–13

Disruptive action
, 69–70

Domestic mobilization
, 158–159

Drug courts
, 104–105

Early American Literature
, 145

Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
, 97–98

Ecologies of knowledge
, 248–249

Economic efficiency
, 196

Economic inequality
, 196

rebirth as political issue
, 6

Economic Issues and Policies
, 20

Economic news
, 71

Education and Science Workers Union
, 75

Education reformers
, 198

Emotions
, 243

Engaged skeptics
, 219

Environmental Defense Fund (EDF)
, 26–27, 29–30

Environmental justice activism
, 249–252

Environmental Justice Advisory Committee (EJAC)
, 36

Environmental Protection Agency
, 124

Equality
, 48

of membership
, 137

of opportunity
, 137

of treatment
, 137

Ethnic Studies
, 145

European Union (EU)
, 218

Exploratory study
, 200

Extremist nonstate actors
, 156

Face discriminatory governments
, 156

Facebook
, 181

Fairness
, 48

Family transformations
, 50

Federalist Society website
, 218–219

Fee-for-service

arrangements
, 99–100

models
, 102–103

Financial/economic crisis
, 178

Financialization of public higher education
, 68

France

recalibration in
, 54–55

social policy reforms in
, 53–55

Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ)
, 76

Tuition Debates in
, 78, 81–82

Free haven
, 184–185

Free higher education
, 73

“Free market” policies
, 116–117

Free spaces
, 184–185

Free Women
, 242

Freedom Is an Endless Meeting (Polletta)
, 240

Functionalist theories
, 48–49

Gender inequalities
, 20

Gendered caring labor
, 129–130

Gendered geographies of struggle
, 247–248

General Assemblies
, 185

General Economic Inequality
, 4–5

German Socialist Party
, 243

German Trade Union Confederation (DGB)
, 75

German welfare state recalibration
, 51

Germany

higher education tuition policy in
, 74–75

recalibration in
, 53–54

social policy reforms in
, 53–55

Global economic crisis
, 181–182

Global feminist sisterhood
, 248

Global financial crisis
, 178

Globalization
, 181–182

GOP
, 143–145

Green business
, 24–25, 28

and policy preferences
, 32

Greenhouse gas (GHG)
, 24

Group-based racism
, 144

Gun control vs. gun rights movements
, 26

Hardships

challenges and
, 124–127

policy impacts and
, 120–122

Health disparities
, 138

High school students
, 222–225

Higher education council (HEC)
, 82

Higher education tuition policy

data
, 76–77

Germany
, 74–75

methodology
, 77–78

opportunities and constraints
, 70–73

results
, 78–84

Student Protests in Hürriyet
, 82–84

Tuition Debates in FAZ
, 78–82

tuition hikes come knocking
, 73–76

Turkey
, 75–76

HIV/AIDS
, 138

inequality and lived experience of Black MSM with
, 136–137

Housing Choice Voucher program (HCV)
, 98

Human services
, 96

Hürriyet in Turkey
, 76

Student Protests in Hürriyet
, 82, 84–85

Hybrid citizens
, 248

“Hyper-reactionary” policies
, 116–117

Immigrant
, 156

case selection, data, and analytical procedures
, 159–160

mobilization
, 157–159

Inadequate policies
, 138

Income inequality
, 5–6, 8, 15–16

Indignados movement
, 177–178, 189–190, 253

Individual partner selections
, 144

Individual-level virtual network
, 181–182

Inequality. See also Equality
, 137, 196

amplification, legitimization, and cooptation of antiinequality frame
, 11–13

of black MSM with HIV
, 136–137

collecting data and sampling participants
, 182–184

comparing occupiers and antiausterity demonstrators
, 184, 190

continued partisan politicization and institutionalization
, 16–18

democratic party adoption of antiinequality messaging
, 14–16

discursive eruption
, 8–11

enduring impacts of occupy movement
, 8

general economic
, 4–5

methods
, 182–184

mobilization dynamics
, 184–186

motivational dynamics
, 188–190

occupy movement
, 179, 182, 190–191

rebirth of economic inequality as political issue
, 6

sampling demonstrations
, 182

social movements and political parties
, 7

sociodemographics
, 187–188

sustained attention and politicization
, 13–14

threat of climate change
, 192

Innovation
, 246–247

Instagram
, 181

Institutional actors
, 69, 71

Institutional approach
, 49

Institutional isomorphism
, 245

Institutional left
, 6, 11, 18

Institutional politics
, 18

Institutionalization
, 16–18

Interest group theory, social movement and
, 26–29

Internalization, consequences of
, 219–221

International Social Survey Program (ISSP)
, 51–52

quantitative analyses of
, 60

Internationalization of Tawakkol Karman
, 165–168

InterOccupy
, 254

Investor-owned utilities (IOUs)
, 24, 32

policy preferences
, 32–33

ISIS
, 156

Islamophobic state policies
, 156

Issue attention cycle
, 8

Jemez Principles for Democratic Organizing
, 250

Journalists perceive social movement actors
, 69

Justice-oriented environmental movement in California
, 30

Justice-oriented SMOs
, 24, 26, 28, 30

coalitions include non-movement actors
, 36–37

resources, tactics, and “legal discursive opportunity structure”
, 37, 39–40

understanding limited influence of
, 35–39

Keynesianism
, 92

Labor market

institutions
, 196

risks
, 50

Labor strikes
, 208

Labor unions
, 196

Latinas confronting family planning cutbacks in Texas’ RGV
, 118–119

Legal discursive opportunity structure
, 28, 37, 39

Legitimation. See also Polarization

and “discursive resources”
, 12–13

of antiinequality frame
, 11–13

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)
, 138, 227

equality
, 136

racial inequality in
, 148

Lived experience of Black MSM with HIV
, 136–137

Low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS)
, 35

Loyalty
, 245–246

Machine learning (ML)
, 77

Male Blackness
, 92

Marginalized immigrant groups
, 156

Market-based strategies
, 99–100

Market-oriented SMOs
, 24, 26–27

Mass disruption
, 197

Mass incarceration
, 92, 101

Mass media
, 68–69

social movements and
, 70–73

Mass mobilization
, 70

Mass supervision
, 93–94, 101–102

Materialistic values
, 178–179

Means-tested programs
, 96, 98–99

Media

attention
, 8

cultures
, 69

outlets
, 204

Medicaid
, 98

Medicare
, 96, 98

Migratory effect
, 11

Mixed-methods design
, 70

Mobilization dynamics
, 184–186

Moral economies
, 196, 201, 210

external mechanisms
, 201–204

internal mechanisms
, 204–210

Motivational dynamics
, 188–190

Movements
, 238

actors
, 69

for democracy
, 242

examples of unsatisfactory character of movement democracy
, 239–242

movement-induced party polarization
, 19

organizations
, 245

responses
, 246, 249, 252, 256

Municipal underbounding
, 122–123

Murky middle
, 103

Muslim Ban
, 156, 169–171

National Education Association (NEA)
, 209

National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit
, 250

Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)
, 26–27, 29–30

Negative radical flank effects
, 26

Neoliberal capitalism
, 117–118

Neoliberal paternalism
, 100

Neoliberal policies
, 115–116

Neoliberal poverty governance
, 108

Neoliberalism
, 92–93

New York Anti-Saleh Protest (2012)
, 167–168

New York City (NYC)
, 8–10

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
, 30

Non-movement actors, coalitions
, 36–37

Nonprofit organizations
, 93–94

Occupiers
, 184, 190

Occupy Movement
, 179, 182, 238, 246, 252, 256

Occupy 2.0
, 254–255

Occupy University
, 255

Occupy Wall Street (OWS)
, 6

movement
, 177–178

protest
, 8, 18

Occupy-like demonstrators
, 179

Occupy-like protests
, 177–179

Oklahoma Education Association (OEA)
, 202

Oklahoma Legislature
, 202

Oklahoma Teachers United (OTU)
, 208

Online activism. See also Activism
, 221, 227, 229

anticlimactic nature of
, 229–230

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
, 68, 73–74

Organizational histories
, 241

Organizational resources
, 71–72

Orientalist
, 156

Othering
, 142–143

OTPOR
, 180

Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E)
, 37

Parallel political science research
, 29

Parole
, 105–106

Participation
, 216–217

Participation and marginalization in French Revolutionary activism
, 241

Participatory democracy
, 240

Partisanship politics
, 142

Party-centered theoretical approach
, 49

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010)
, 140–141

Pay-as-you-go-basis
, 53

Penal welfarism
, 92

Pension reform
, 48

People with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)
, 140–141

Per capita welfare expenditures
, 97

Persistent inequality
, 142–143

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (PRWORA)
, 97

Personalism
, 181

Phraseology
, 146

Planned Parenthood
, 118, 121–122

“Point source” regulations
, 24

Polarization
, 51

over time
, 55–57

Policing
, 103–104

Policy impacts and hardships
, 120–122

Policy responsiveness
, 48–49, 51

Policymakers
, 68–69

Policymaking
, 50

Political context
, 25, 72–73

Political elites
, 27–28

Political mediation model
, 25, 28–29

Political news
, 71

Political opportunity structure
, 25

Political participation, legal age for
, 224–225

Political parties, social movements and
, 7

Political racism
, 143–145

Politicization, sustained attention and
, 13–14

Polls
, 200

Poorer education opportunities
, 138

Positive feedback effect
, 197

Positive radical flank effects
, 26

Postindustrial labor market
, 50

Postmaterialistic values
, 178–179

Poverty
, 92, 138

governance
, 92

Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)
, 139, 141

Pro-choice versus antiabortion movements
, 26

Pro-verus anti-marijuana legalization movements
, 26

Probation
, 105–106

Progressive policies
, 73

Progressive stack
, 254

Protest
, 13–14, 69, 72, 80, 179

occupiers and anti-austerity demonstrators
, 179

occupy-like protests
, 177–179

OWS protest
, 6, 8, 18

participation motives
, 188

Public Employees Insurance Agency (PEIA)
, 197

Public institutions
, 68

Public opinion analysis
, 50

Public pervasiveness of deficit model
, 217–219

Public policymaking
, 26

Punishment
, 92, 100, 103

criminal legal supervision
, 101–103

detention
, 101

mapping punishment–welfare continuum
, 95–96

murky middle
, 103

policing
, 103–104

Qualitative analysis
, 70

Qualitative code
, 222

Quantitative analyses of changes
, 49

Race
, 145

“Race to the Top” competitive funding program
, 198

Racial inequality
, 20, 138, 141

Racism
, 144

Racist
, 156

body politics
, 147–148

“Radical flank effects” framework
, 26

Rational anticipation
, 50

Reactionary neoliberalism
, 118

“Reactionary” policies
, 116–117

Recalibration

in France
, 54–55

in Germany
, 53–54

Red State Revolt
, 196, 199

Refugee crisis
, 163

Rehabilitation
, 105

Religious-based stigma
, 138

Representation
, 7, 145, 147

“Restorative justice” process
, 254

Rio Grande Valley (RGV)
, 116

Latinas confronting family planning cutbacks in Texas’ RGV
, 118–119

Rising Tide
, 256

Rituals
, 184–185

“Roll back” neoliberalism
, 116

“Roll out” neoliberalism
, 116–117

Rural Latinx women in California’s San Joaquin Valley
, 122–124

Safer spaces committees
, 254

Semi-Exit
, 238–239, 245–246, 256

Sexual racism
, 144

Sexually transmitted infection testing (STI testing)
, 118, 138

Shadow carceral state
, 93–94

Snowball sampling
, 34, 123–124

Social capital
, 119

Social construction of race
, 148

Social embeddedness
, 188

Social expenditure data
, 49

Social inequality
, 177–178

Social insurance programs
, 98

Social marginality

governing
, 92

in United States
, 93

Social media
, 181

Social movement
, 68–69, 238, 248

activists
, 248

actors
, 69

and interest group theory
, 26–29

and mass media
, 70–73

mobilization
, 25

organizations
, 243–244

and political parties
, 7

scholars
, 216, 239

Social movement organizations (SMOs). See also Justice-oriented SMOs
, 24

Social networks
, 188

Social policy
, 48–49

France and Germany reforms
, 53–55

reforms
, 48

Social reproductive labor
, 117

Social Security
, 96, 98

Social services
, 96, 99–100

Sociodemographics
, 187–188

Socioeconomic backgrounds
, 57–59

results
, 59–61

Southern politics of spatial exclusion
, 143–145

Spaces
, 248

Spatial exclusion, Southern politics of
, 143–145

Special Supplemental Nutrition Program
, 98

Spokescouncil model
, 254

Standards-based education reform policies
, 198

State policymakers as “institutional activists”
, 33–34

Stigma
, 146

antigay
, 141

HIV
, 141

religious-based stigma
, 138

Stratification systems
, 216

Strike Debt
, 255

Strikes
, 196, 200

Structural changes
, 50

Structural inequities
, 138–139

Structural outcomes
, 143–145

Structural topic models (STMs)
, 77

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
, 240

Student-led collective action
, 72

Students for Democratic Society (SDS)
, 240–241

Sulfur oxides (SOx)
, 30

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
, 98

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
, 98

Sustained attention and politicization
, 13–14

Symbolism
, 184–185

Syndemic theory
, 138

Synergism of plagues
, 138

Syria

auxiliary force against authoritarianism in
, 161

humanitarian crisis, and
, 156

Syrian American Council (SAC)
, 161–162

Syrians
, 156

associations combat discrimination abroad
, 162–164

case
, 161–165

in democracies
, 156

Tawakkol Karman, internationalization of
, 165–168

Tax credits
, 97–98

Teachers
, 196–197

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)
, 98

Temporary Protective Status (TPS)
, 163

Therapeutic community model (TC model)
, 105

Tooleville
, 124–125

“Tough on crime” policies
, 116–117, 127

Toxic masculinity
, 138

Traditional “greedy” institutions
, 181

Transnational advocacy networks
, 157

Transnational dimensions
, 246–249

Transnational feminist networks
, 248

Transnational mobilization
, 158–159

Transnational movement
, 238, 246–247, 250

Trevor Project
, 227

Tuition policy
, 68

Turkey, higher education tuition policy in
, 75–76

Turkish political system
, 74

Twitter
, 181

UN Conference on Environment and Development
, 250

“Under age” youth, forms of activism for
, 226–227

Unemployment

degressive factor in
, 54

in Germany
, 58

insurance
, 96

Unequal distribution
, 24

Unequal policy responsiveness
, 51

Unincorporated communities
, 122–123

caring for families in
, 124–127

Universal basic income (UBI)
, 17–18

Universal social insurance programs
, 96

US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
, 14–15

US teachers’ strikes

case presentation
, 197–200

data and methods
, 200–201

moral economies mechanisms
, 201–210

US-based Syrian Emergency Task Force and British Solidarity for Syria
, 161–162

Virtual brokers
, 181–182

Voice
, 248–249

Vulnerability troubling
, 142

War on terror
, 170–171

Wealth inequality
, 5–6

Wealth tax
, 4

Welfare
, 92, 96, 100

mapping punishment–welfare continuum
, 95–96

means-tested programs
, 98–99

murky middle
, 103

and penal institutions
, 93

policing
, 103–104

retrenchment
, 92

social insurance programs
, 98

social services
, 99–100

in United States
, 93

Welfare state recalibration

attitude change and polarization over time
, 55–57

attitudes
, 49–51

difference between attitudes of more advantaged people and of people from lower

methods and data
, 51–52

social policy reforms in France And Germany
, 53–55

West Virginia Public Employees United
, 208

White MSM
, 139

White-supremacist social movements
, 156

Whiteness
, 136

Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
, 98

Women of color in Southern California
, 127–130

Work stoppage
, 203

World Social Forums (WSF)
, 248, 250–251

Yemen

free speech and human rights in
, 166

global spokesperson for
, 166

immigrant in
, 156

violence in
, 166

Yemen Peace Project
, 159–160

Yemeni American Coalition for Change
, 167–168

Yemeni American Merchants Association (YAMA)
, 169

Yemeni mobilization in response to Arab Spring
, 165–168

Internationalization of Tawakkol Karman
, 166–167

New York Anti-Saleh Protest, January and February 2012
, 167–168

Yemenis
, 156

in democracies
, 156

Young people
, 216, 220

data and methods
, 221–222

Youth
, 216

activism
, 217–221

activists
, 219–220

deficit model
, 216–217, 224, 229–230

forms of activism for “under age” youth
, 226–227

Zuccotti Park
, 10, 252–253