As intervention science develops, researchers are increasingly attending to the long-term effects of interventions in academic settings. Currently, however, there is no common taxonomy for understanding the complex processes through which interventions can produce long-lasting effects. The lack of a common framework results in a number of challenges that limit the ability of intervention scientists to effectively work toward their goal of preparing students to effectively navigate a changing and uncertain world. A comprehensive framework is presented to aid understanding of how interventions that target motivational processes in education produce downstream effects years after implementation. This framework distinguishes between three types of processes through which interventions may produce long-term effects: recursive processes (feedback loops by which positive effects can build on themselves over time), nonrecursive chains of effects (“domino effects” in which proximal outcomes affect distinct distal outcomes), and latent intrapersonal effects (changed habits, knowledge, or perceptions that affect how students respond in different situations in the future). The framework is applied to intervention research that has reported long-term effects of motivation interventions, evidence for the processes described in this framework is evaluated, and suggestions are presented for how researchers can use the framework to improve intervention design. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how the application of this framework can help intervention scientists to achieve their goal of positively influencing students’ lifelong trajectories, especially in times of change and uncertainty.
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (Grant R01GM102703-05). Cameron Hecht and Stacy Priniski were supported by the Institute of Educational Sciences, U.S. Department of Education (Award #R305B150003). Stacy Priniski was also supported by the National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowship. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the views of the National Institutes of Health or the U.S. Department of Education.
Hecht, C.A., Priniski, S.J. and Harackiewicz, J.M. (2019), "Understanding Long-term Effects of Motivation Interventions in a Changing World", Motivation in Education at a Time of Global Change (Advances in Motivation and Achievement, Vol. 20), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 81-98. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0749-742320190000020005
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