Classical definitions of motivation typically involve two main components: direction and activation. Motivated behavior is directed toward or away from particular stimuli (i.e., appetitive and aversive motivation). Furthermore, activational aspects of motivation refer to the observation that motivated behavior is characterized by substantial activity, vigor, persistence, and exertion of effort in both the initiation and maintenance of behavior. Although separate neural systems direct organisms toward distinct motivational stimuli (e.g., food, water, sex), there appears to be a common circuitry regulating behavioral activation and the exertion of effort. Mesolimbic dopamine is one of the brain systems mediating activational aspects of motivation and exertion of effort. This system integrates aspects of motivation and motor control functions involved in the instigation of action. Research on the neurobiology of effort has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by motivational dysfunction.
This work was supported by a grant to J. S. from the National Institute of Mental Health (MH094966) and to Mercè Correa from U.J.I. P1.1A2013-01.
Disclosure/Conflict of Interest
J. Salamone has received grants from Merck-Serrono, Pfizer, Roche, Shire, and Prexa. M. Correa has received a grant from Servier.
Salamone, J.D. and Correa, M. (2016), "Neurobiology of Effort and the Role of Mesolimbic Dopamine", Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation (Advances in Motivation and Achievement, Vol. 19), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 229-256. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0749-742320160000019014Download as .RIS
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