The understanding of competency development has changed to learning toward a higher degree of self-organization of the learning process. This shift leads to increased requirements on the communication processes of employees and superiors. It is postulated that the coordination between self-organization and external organization is deficient, so competency development activities often do not lead to the desired outcomes. An empirical study was undertaken in which a total of 106 companies were involved. The study investigated various expectations surrounding self-organization and external organization in large companies as opposed to SME, together with the conditions under which self-organization and external organization occur in these companies. The empirical study comes to the conclusion that large enterprises emphasize the central role of HR development for the innovation capacity of an organization more than SME. There are also different ways of combination of self- and external organization of competency development depending on the enterprise size. In contrast to the given assumption, it could not be identified that managers as HR developers can improve the success of competency development.
Kröll, M. (2010), "Self-organization of competency development and the role of managers", Sanchez, R. and Heene, A. (Ed.) Enhancing Competences for Competitive Advantage (Advances in Applied Business Strategy, Vol. 12), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 235-261. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0749-6826(2010)0000012012
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