Index

Organization Design

ISBN: 978-1-78756-330-8, eISBN: 978-1-78756-329-2

ISSN: 0742-3322

Publication date: 10 December 2018

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2018), "Index", Organization Design (Advances in Strategic Management, Vol. 40), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 329-339. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0742-332220180000040018

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Absorptive capacity
, 62, 69–70, 311

Access structure
, 196

Accuracy
, 279, 281

Action propensities
, 33

Active participation by members
, 260–261

Aggregation function
, 230, 235

allocated tasks
, 236–237

and competitive heterogeneity
, 238

task structure
, 236

timing adaptation
, 240–241

transformation
, 237

Aggregation method
, 279

Allocated tasks
, 236–237

Allocation of attention
, 239–240

Ambidexterity
, 116, 118–119

Ambidextrous organization
, 118

Ambiguity in performance feedback
, 153

Aspirations, level of
, 157–159

Asymmetric changes to adjustment rates and priors
, 46–47

Authority
, 59–60, 68

and other devices
, 71–72

Autonomous component innovations
, 307

Autonomous innovations
, 301–302

Average skill levels effects
, 265–266

Balanced control
, 14, 116, 118, 125

analysis and results
, 126–133

balancing innovation for superior performance
, 117–118

as enabler of ambidexterity
, 122

exploitative and exploratory innovation
, 117

measurement and validation of constructs
, 124–126

organizational ambidexterity
, 118–121

Balancing/balanced innovation
, 121

for superior performance
, 117–118

Bandit model
, 166

Bargaining
, 32

Baseline psychological processes
, 150

EoC and persistence-enhancing mechanisms
, 152–153

reinforcement learning and persistence-decreasing mechanisms
, 151–152

Baseline psychological processes
, 155–163

Battle of the Sexes
, 32

Bayesian technique
, 6

Behavior control
, 92

Behavioral

biases
, 240

factors
, 235, 239

integration
, 56

Behavioral learning
, 166–167

models of responses to negative feedback
, 150

perspective
, 148

theory
, 149

Behavioral realism
, 277

Behavioral theory
, 241–242

Behavioral theory of firm
, 157

Belief revision, interventions shaping process of
, 36–38

Belief
, 49

Best group size determinants
, 285–288

Bilateral broker

collaborative community
, 259

community
, 268

Bilateral dependence
, 70

Bottom-up process
, 12

Brainwashing
, 29

Brokering community
, 258

Building construction
, 303–305

Business ecosystems
, 9

Cannibalization
, 215

Carnegie tradition
, 276, 278–279

Centralization

centralized management
, 311

of decision making
, 143

Challenge providers
, 256–257

exit behavior of challenge solvers and
, 260–261

Challenge solvers
, 256–257

exit behavior of challenge providers and
, 260–261

Challenge-solving process
, 260

Cheap talk
, 42

Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
, 103, 104

Chief Financial Officer (CFO)
, 103, 104

Cock and bull sessions
, 98

Coercive bureaucracies
, 72

Cognitive integration
, 57

Coherence
, 85

Coherent theory of organization design
, 12

Collaboration
, 27, 256

battle of sexes payoff matrix
, 32

cultural design interventions
, 33–34

efficacy of cultural design interventions shaping beliefs
, 38–47

failures
, 27

using games to representing interdependence structures
, 30–32

interventions shaping priors
, 35–36

interventions shaping process of belief revision
, 36–38

matching payoff matrix
, 31

modeling culture design as development of beliefs
, 34–38

public goods payoff matrix
, 31

stag-hunt payoff matrix
, 31

Collaborative community
, 256

base scenario
, 263–264

community adaptation
, 268

effects of average skill levels
, 265–266

effects of number of skill types
, 268, 269

effects of skill heterogeneity
, 266–267

exit behavior of challenge providers and challenge solvers
, 260–261

model parameters
, 262–263

model specification
, 259–260

recruitment of new agents
, 261

Collective incentives
, 61, 70

Collective socialization efforts
, 35–36

Commitment device
, 16

Communication
, 42, 61–62, 69

Community adaptation
, 268, 269

Competitive dynamics
, 220

Competitive heterogeneity
, 238

Competitive strategy
, 207–208, 209–213

Competitively aggressive behavior
, 208

Competitor analysis
, 212

Complex products
, 300

Complex systems
, 7

Complexity
, 305

Computational models
, 29

Concurrent engineering
, 61

Condorcet’s jury theorem
, 276

Condorcetian voting
, 276

models
, 279–280

Configuration of control systems
, 13–14

Configurational attributes
, 93

Configurational theorists
, 85

Consensus level
, 279

Constrained fluid participation
, 187

Construction phase
, 303–304

Context of intervention
, 28, 29, 47

Contextual ambidexterity
, 14

Contingency
, 6

Contract integration
, 310, 323

Contract method
, 314

Contractual integration
, 302–303

Control

forms
, 86

mechanisms
, 120, 121

systems
, 13–14, 84

targets
, 92

variables
, 126, 314–315

Corporate hierarchy’s role
, 3

Correlation matrix
, 126, 140

Coupled learning
, 29

Craft integration
, 310–311, 314, 323

Craft
, 303–304

Cross-functional communication
, 73

Cross-functional teams
, 62

Cross-subunit participation
, 61

Cross-unit structure
, 60–61

Crowd-based decision making
, 277

Crowdsourcing
, 18, 277

Cultural controls
, 103

Cultural design interventions
, 33–34

asymmetric changes to adjustment rates and priors
, 46–47

changing adjustment rates symmetrically
, 45–46

changing priors symmetrically
, 42–45

cumulative performance vs. adjustment rates
, 43–45

efficacy shaping beliefs
, 38–47

final period beliefs, variation and stability
, 40–41

model parameters for cultural interventions on beliefs
, 39

Cultural integration
, 57, 58

Cultural interventions
, 29

Culture of integration
, 74

Cultures
, 12, 27–28

Decentralization
, 116, 120, 181

Decision makers
, 152–153, 239

Decision opportunities
, 186

Decision structures
, 200

Decision-making

authority
, 149

centralization of
, 143

degree of decentralized
, 120

processes
, 178–179, 278

Decomposability
, 184, 194–195

decreasing decomposability of organizations
, 7–9

Delegation decisions
, 211–212

Departmental overlap
, 70

Dependent variable
, 313

Design for manufacturability
, 69

Design phase
, 303–304

Design-Bid-Build (D-B-B)
, 304

Design-Build (D-B)
, 304

Differentiation
, 4, 181

Dimensions of control, survey items for
, 143–144

Distributed decision making
, 11

Diversity
, 185

and overlap
, 179–180

Divide-and-conquer process
, 192

Division of labor
, 14–15

Divisionalization

implications and research directions
, 219–221

organization design and competitive strategy
, 209–213

and rivalry
, 213–219

Durbin-Wu-Hausman test for endogeneity
, 126

Dynamic division
, 192

Dynamic process
, 210

Ecosystems
, 10

Empty world hypothesis
, 8

Enabling bureaucracies
, 72

Enabling relationships
, 73–74

Energy management systems
, 300

Energy supply contractor (ESCO)
, 321

Energy-efficient radiant floor heating system
, 301–302

Energy-efficient technologies
, 307

Entrapment
, 170

Entrepreneurially experienced decision makers
, 152

Entrepreneurship
, 162

Epistemic interdependence
, 57

Epistemic stalemates
, 42

Equilibrium gap
, 265

Escalation behavior
, 152, 167–168

Escalation of commitment (EoC)
, 148, 150, 152–153, 167–168

Exit behavior of challenge providers and challenge solvers
, 260–261

Experiential learning
, 179

heterogeneous knowledge with
, 191–194

Exploitation
, 116–118, 124

Exploitative innovation
, 117

Exploration
, 116–118, 124

Explorative search
, 153

Exploratory innovation
, 117

projects
, 153

External fits
, 14, 65, 74

External justification
, 152

Feasibility and configuration of integrative devices
, 63–74

Field research
, 91

Financial resource
, 210

Firm

age
, 126

competitive position and objectives
, 209

facing disruptive technologies
, 215–216

firm-level heterogeneity
, 231–232

heterogeneity
, 10, 233–238

performance
, 124

realized strategy
, 123

size
, 126

First-order dependencies
, 236

Flexible adjustments of organization design
, 245–246

Formal behavior control
, 100–101, 105

Formal control
, 86

Formal input control
, 94, 101–102, 105

Formal mechanisms
, 92

Formal organization
, 208

Formal output control
, 94, 99, 102, 104

Formalization
, 60, 67, 72–73, 116, 120

Formalization of processes and goals
, 144

Founding
, 88

Framing, organization design
, 241–242

Free-riding
, 57

Free reports
, 90

Fruit fly-type of settings
, 278

Functional overlap
, 70

Functionally differentiated organizations
, 61

Garbage can model (GCM)
, 15, 178, 259–260

experiential learning, heterogeneous knowledge with
, 191–194

homogeneous knowledge
, 188–189

implications for empirical studies
, 200

interdependence
, 194–196, 197

knowledge accumulation and application
, 182–183

knowledge-based view of competitive advantage
, 180

knowledge-based view of firm
, 198–199

learning, heterogeneous knowledge without
, 189–191

learning rate
, 194

limitations and future research
, 200–201

of organizational learning
, 184–187

organizational structure and learning
, 180–182

participation rights vs. participation restrictions
, 199–200

untapped potential
, 183–184

General Motors (GM)
, 214, 242

Generalists
, 62, 192

Goal ambiguity
, 159–160

Goal frames
, 155–157

Goal framing theory
, 34, 154

Gray water reuse systems
, 300

Green buildings

construction
, 302

as research setting
, 303–305

Group performance
, 282

Handmaiden’s role vis-à-vis strategy
, 230

Heterogeneity
, 231

allocation of attention to organization design task
, 239–240

firm
, 233–235

individual-level
, 234

input
, 233–234

menu costs
, 240–241

motivation to change
, 241–242

organization design and
, 243–246

performance
, 233

and persistence of organization design
, 238

persistent
, 234–235

relational contracts
, 242–243

Heterogeneous knowledge

with experiential learning
, 191–194

without learning
, 189–191

Heuristics for research
, 243

flexible adjustments of organization design
, 245–246

homogenous organizational members
, 243–244

organizations adopt similar designs
, 245

organizations as unitary decision makers
, 244–245

Hierarchic access structure
, 196

Hierarchic structure
, 185–186

Hierarchical participation restriction
, 191, 199

Hierarchy
, 71

elements
, 86–87

levels
, 126

High integration
, 314

Hockey stick dynamic
, 265

Hockey stick effect
, 269–270

Holism
, 85

Holistic forms of control
, 86–87

Holocracies
, 8

Homogeneity–heterogeneity proposition
, 266

Homogeneous knowledge
, 188–189

Homogenizing assumptions
, 235

Homogenous organizational members
, 243–244

Homophily
, 72

Hot stove

effect
, 148, 151, 166

mechanism
, 156

Human capital
, 233–234

Human-resource intensive activities
, 200

Hybrid team process
, 277

Hypothetical efficiency
, 233–234

Ideal-type control typologies
, 107–109

assembling control elements into control configurations
, 107–108

conceptualizations of control configurations
, 108–109

incomplete vs. complete configurations
, 109

Idiosyncrasy
, 61

Imperfect recruiting effect
, 288–290

in extant research
, 231–232

In-group bias
, 72

Incentives
, 73, 161

Independent variables
, 313–314

Individual accuracy
, 280

Individual-level heterogeneity
, 234, 241

Inducements
, 61

Industry/industries
, 301

facing disruptive technologies
, 215–216

industry-wide shared knowledge
, 320

standards
, 304

Informal behavior control
, 95, 98, 105

Informal control
, 86

Informal input control
, 97–98, 105

Informal mechanisms
, 92

Informal output control
, 94, 99, 105

Innovation (see also Systemic innovation)

autonomous component
, 307

balanced
, 121

exploitative and exploratory
, 117

management
, 162

stage-gate model of
, 72

systemic component
, 302, 307

types in complex
, 306–307

value-creating
, 217

Innovation balance
, 124–125, 128, 133

modeling choice and regressions on
, 140–142

Innovative components
, 300

Innovativeness
, 306

Input control
, 92

Institutional knowledge
, 304

Institutionalized knowledge
, 307

Instrumental variables (IV)
, 140

Integrated form of agreement (IFOA)
, 323–324

Integrated Project Delivery (IPD)
, 323

Integrated system
, 232

Integration
, 2, 4, 181

principles of
, 13

Integrative devices
, 54

authority
, 59–60, 71–72

collective incentives
, 61

communication
, 61–62

comprehensive typology
, 59–63

cross-unit structure
, 60–61

enabling relationships
, 73–74

formalization
, 60

formalization and socialization
, 72–73

and internal and external fits
, 74

multi-skilling
, 62

socialization
, 62–63

structures and incentives
, 73

Intel
, 60

Intended strategy
, 123

Intensity
, 185

of rivalry
, 211–213

Interdependence
, 9, 54, 64, 183, 194–196

problem-solving efficiency
, 197

typology
, 63

Interdependent processes
, 209

Internal fits
, 14, 65, 74

Interpersonal agreements
, 100

Intra-organizational competition, constructive
, 222

Intra-organizational structures
, 209

Iowa Gambling experiment
, 166

Job/task design
, 6

Joint myopia
, 11

Joint problem solving
, 186–187

Joint production
, 69

Knowledge
, 126

accumulation and application
, 182–183

accumulation process
, 191

application process
, 191

efficiency and flexibility of knowledge hierarchy
, 198–199

exchange platform
, 257

heterogeneity
, 179, 188

homogeneity
, 179

Knowledge-based view

of competitive advantage
, 180

of firm
, 198–199

Knowledge-intensive industries
, 256

Large corporations
, 116

Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)
, 6

Lateral structural devices
, 61

Lateral structures
, 60, 73

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
, 302, 311–312

Leaner structures
, 208

Learning
, 187

opportunities
, 179, 191

processes
, 178

rate
, 194

Long-term incentives
, 171

Loss aversion
, 241–242

Loss prevention
, 210

Loss-avoidance
, 149, 153

Low integration
, 314

Low-frequency words
, 6

M-form organization
, 16

Majority voting
, 276, 294

Management and Organizational Practices (MOPS)
, 245

Matching

game
, 30–31

process
, 18

Mature industries
, 303

Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing systems (MEP systems)
, 304

Median cutoff criterion
, 125

Medium integration
, 314

Menu costs
, 240–241

Meta-organizations
, 231

Micro-level processes
, 181, 184

Mirroring hypothesis
, 302–303, 308

Modern knowledge economy
, 178

Modular designs
, 33

Modularity
, 33, 181, 184

Monetary incentives
, 61

Motivational factors
, 235

MoveCo
, 88–90, 92–107, 111

bureaucratic control
, 101

control use at
, 106–107

day-to-day activities
, 105

Movers
, 103

Multi-disciplinary nature of organizational control research
, 109–110

Multi-skilling
, 62, 69

Mutual adjustments
, 10, 37

Narrow framing
, 84

Near-optimal performance
, 285

Negative feedback
, 148, 149

avoidance mechanism
, 152

organizational responses to
, 168–169

Noisy feedback
, 153

Non-collaborative actions
, 45

Non-financial resource
, 210

Number effects of skill types
, 268

Object of intervention
, 28

Oligopolistic industries
, 208

On-site formal interviews
, 110

One-off products
, 305–307

Openness
, 126

Operating earnings
, 124

Operations management researchers
, 54

Operations manager (OM)
, 101

Opportunity cost information
, 167–168

Organization(al)

adopt similar designs
, 245

authority
, 59

behavior
, 110

challenges of developing complex one-off products
, 306

culture
, 27, 62–63

decision processes
, 183

design implications
, 291–292

designers
, 29, 43, 158, 160, 162

economics
, 232

efficiency
, 181

forms
, 9, 308

increasing difficulty of organizational adaptation
, 10–11

knowledge
, 199

learning
, 180–182

management
, 3

members
, 56, 179

mitosis
, 215, 221–222

organization-level aspirations
, 158

responses to negative feedback
, 168–169

roles
, 15, 149, 153–157

structures
, 11, 178, 180–182

as unitary decision makers
, 244–245

Organizational ambidexterity
, 118

through balanced control
, 119–121

known pathways to
, 118–119

Organizational contexts
, 169

variables
, 169

Organizational control
, 85

configurational attributes
, 93

elements of control
, 85–86

emphasis of control mechanism use across time periods
, 96

holistic forms of control
, 86–87

ideal-type control typologies to explanatory control configurations
, 107–109

multi-disciplinary nature of organizational control research
, 109–110

research on
, 85–87

Organizational design
, 1, 119, 148–149, 165–166, 207–209, 230

aggregation function approach
, 235–238

central problems
, 1

configuration and control
, 13–14

decreasing decomposability of organizations
, 7–9

division of labor and organizational learning
, 14–15

dynamic process
, 210

elements
, 302

fit and coordination
, 12–13

frequencies
, 7

and heterogeneity
, 243–246

heterogeneity and persistence
, 238–243

implications for theory
, 163–169

increasing difficulty of organizational adaptation, learning, and problem solving
, 10–11

increasing relevance of alternative units of analysis
, 9–10

and intensity of rivalry
, 211–213

new organizational forms and problem solving
, 17–19

organizational roles, goal frames, and baseline psychological processes
, 155–157

percentage growth in articles
, 8

perspective
, 150

renewing foundations
, 11–19

reviewing foundations
, 3–5

revisiting foundations
, 5–11

reward systems and baseline psychological processes
, 157–163

of roles and reward systems
, 153–163

sources of change in
, 6–11

in strategy
, 231–235

structure and strategy
, 15–17

Organizational integration
, 54, 62

comprehensive typology of integrative devices
, 59–63

feasibility and configuration
, 63–74

key concepts and definitions
, 56–58

Organizational learning
, 14–15

GCM of
, 184

increasing difficulty of
, 10–11

joint problem solving
, 186–187

learning and specialization
, 187

organizational structure
, 185–186

task environment and organization
, 185

Output control
, 92

Paces, the
, 97

Participation
, 182–183

restrictions
, 199–200

rights
, 199–200

Participatory decision making
, 120

Payoffs
, 166

Performance

determinants
, 282–285

feedback
, 166

heterogeneity
, 17, 233

Perreault and Leigh’s index
, 93

Persistent/persistence

heterogeneity
, 234–235

limiting biased belief updating
, 156

persistence-decreasing mechanisms
, 151–152

persistence-enhancing mechanisms
, 152–153

persistence-enhancing psychological processes
, 156

in presence of negative feedback
, 150

Plug-and play fashion
, 306

Pooled interdependence
, 54, 63, 65–67

Population
, 280–281

Portfolio manager role
, 155, 156

Power law of practice
, 36

Primary integrative devices
, 56

Priors
, 33

asymmetric changes to adjustment rates and
, 46–47

interventions shaping
, 35–36

Prisoner’s Dilemma
, 30

Problem allocation
, 15

Problem solving
, 17–19

efficiency
, 201

increasing difficulty of
, 10–11

process
, 184

Process-oriented organization theorists
, 54

Product development
, 300

Production managers
, 125

Professional Operations Manager (POM)
, 105

Program Coordinators
, 71

Project integration
, 314

as solution to developing innovative products
, 309–310

as strategic tool
, 320–323

Project manager role
, 155, 156

Project-level aspirations
, 158

Psychological environment
, 28

Psychological processes
, 148, 154, 168

Public Goods game
, 30

Purging process
, 265

Reciprocal interdependence
, 54, 64, 69–70

Reinforcement learning
, 36, 150–152

Replicable configurations
, 88

Resource dependence/stakeholders
, 6

Rewards
, 61

systems
, 153–154, 157–163

Risk aversion
, 241–242

Rivalry
, 213

divisionalization revisited
, 213–214

intensity
, 211–213

stock
, 218–219

structural cannibalization
, 214–218

Role descriptions
, 200

Sampling bias in reinforcement learning
, 151

Search behavior
, 125

Self-identity
, 152

Self-justification
, 149, 150

explanations of persistence
, 152

mechanism
, 153

psychological process of
, 156

Sense making
, 29, 37

Sequential interdependence
, 54, 63, 67–68

Shaping

beliefs
, 33–34

payoffs
, 33–34

Skill heterogeneity effects
, 266–267

Skill types, number effects of
, 268

Social bonds
, 73

Social relationships
, 239

Socialization
, 29, 35, 49, 62–63, 68, 72–73

Solvency ratio
, 126

Sorting
, 29, 34

Span of control
, 126

Specialization
, 14, 181, 187

Specialized structure
, 185–186

Specific organizational context
, 239

Stability
, 65–66, 72, 157, 240

Stable organization
, 65

Stag-Hunt game
, 30–32, 34

Stage-Gate Model

of innovation
, 72

of new product development
, 68

Standard

and institutional knowledge
, 320

Stock of accumulated effort
, 187

Stock–Wright least mean square statistic
, 142

Strategic/strategy
, 15–17

decision making
, 60

management
, 230

organization design in
, 231–235

project integration as strategic tool
, 320–323

Strategy–structure–performance paradigm
, 17

Structural/structure
, 15–17, 73

ambidexterity
, 14

cannibalization
, 214–218

complexity
, 220

conditions
, 150

contingency theory
, 59

devices
, 60

differentiation with fluid participation
, 196

Subjective payoffs
, 33

Subunit interdependencies
, 55

Supra-organizational unit of analysis
, 9

Survey items for dimensions of control
, 143–144

Systemic component innovations
, 302, 307

Systemic innovation
, 301–302

building construction and green buildings as research setting
, 303–305

complex, one-off products
, 305–306

descriptive statistics and correlations
, 316

effect sizes
, 319

GEE logistic analysis
, 317, 318

hypotheses
, 308–311

inclusion of autonomous and systemic component innovations
, 319

limits of standards and institutional knowledge
, 320

organizational challenges of developing complex one-off products
, 306

project integration as strategic tool
, 320–323

standard product development model
, 319

types of innovation in complex, one-off products
, 306–307

Task

allocation process
, 18–19

environment
, 63, 185

interdependence
, 65

organization
, 185

specifications
, 200

structure
, 236

Technology inclusion
, 313

Term-smoothing parameter
, 6

Theoretical and intellectual specialization
, 54

Theory of bureaucracy (Weber)
, 86

Theory of means-ends contingencies
, 86

Thorndike’s Law of effect
, 36

Three-stage least-squares modeling approach (3SLS)

modeling approach
, 126, 129–130

regression analyses
, 140, 141

Tight-loose

aspect
, 116, 121

mode of decision making
, 14

Tightly coupled systems
, 10

Time horizon of incentives and performance evaluation
, 161–162

Time to market
, 70

Timing Adaptation of aggregation functions
, 240–241

Tolerance for failure
, 162–163

Top-down process
, 12

Topic models
, 5–6

Topic-smoothing parameter
, 6

Total Quality Management movement
, 71

Trade-offs
, 118

Transition function
, 243–244

Turbulence
, 185

Two-stage-least-squares regression analyses (2SLS regression analyses)
, 140

Uncertainty
, 65

Unitary decision makers, organizations as
, 244–245

Unsegmented structure
, 185–186, 188–192, 198

Untapped potential of GCM
, 183–184

US Green Building Council
, 311–312

Valuable knowledge
, 183

Value-creating

innovation
, 217

resources
, 180

Variation in structure
, 15

Watson’s Law of recency
, 37

Wisdom of crowd in idea selection
, 275–276

determinants of best group size
, 285–288

determinants of performance
, 282–285

group
, 281–282

effect of imperfect recruiting
, 288–290

organization design implications
, 291–292

population
, 280–281

relationship to Carnegie tradition
, 278–279

relationship to Condorcetian voting models
, 279–280

theoretical motivation
, 277

Workflow
, 70

World Management Survey (WMS)
, 116, 245