Index

Geography, Location, and Strategy

ISBN: 978-1-78714-277-0, eISBN: 978-1-78714-276-3

ISSN: 0742-3322

Publication date: 19 April 2017

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2017), "Index", Geography, Location, and Strategy (Advances in Strategic Management, Vol. 36), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 463-469. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0742-332220170000036023

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Absorptive capacities
, 431

Affiliates
, 139, 432

Americas Invent Act (AIA)
, 199

Android
, 203

Anti-Monopoly laws
, 211

Apple
, 167, 204, 220

Arbitrage
, 232, 416

Backdating. See Stock backdating

Barco
, 223–224

Bayh–Dole Act
, 129

Bertrand-Nash equilibrium
, 66

Big pharma list
, 357

Board interlocks
, 310, 312, 315–317, 322–323, 325, 326, 327, 332–336

Bureaucratic quality
, 253

Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)
, 11, 18–20, 354, 368

Bureau Van Dijk (BvD)
, 91–92

Business groups (BGs)
, 88, 90, 95

defined
, 88

Buyer Total Orders
, 240, 253

CAGR
, 169, 176

CDs and DVDs, sales of
, 222

China IP litigation Analysis (CIELA)
, 198

Cobb–Douglas production function
, 103

Collaborations
, 5, 218, 375

cross-regional
, 345–346, 349

in large firms
, 345

Competition–innovation relationship
, 388, 408

Complementarities
, 172, 432, 442–443, 449–454

Complexity as IP protection
, 221

Configuration-coordination framework
, 10, 12, 13–14, 17, 28

Consumer preferences
, 1, 52–53, 54, 56, 58, 62, 72, 82, 83

Consumer preferences and multiproduct firms
, 49

discussion
, 82–83

higher trading costs, profits under
, 63

laundry detergent industry application
, 57

simulations, theoretical motivation for
, 54–57

Consumer product markets
, 54

Contracting institutions
, 231, 232, 233, 247, 251–252, 258, 264

Controversial practices
, 4, 310, 311, 318, 334

Corporate elites
, 326

Corporate misconduct
, 310, 327

Corporate practices
, 312–314

Corruption
, 253

Crime rate
, 326

Cross-regional collaboration
, 345–346, 355

and localized knowledge spillover
, 345, 347

and quality of local innovation
, 350–351

Danfoss
, 225

Density
, 273, 274, 279, 280, 289, 294, 298

Developing countries
, 23, 32, 35, 42, 207, 430, 437, 439–442, 446, 449, 452, 453

Differentiated products
, 36, 54, 62

Diffusion of invisible practices
, 314

Directory of Corporate Affiliations of LexisNexis (DCA)
, 353

Dispersion-coordination framework
, 14

Domestic groups

and foreign acquisition
, 110–113

multinational groups versus
, 98

characteristics
, 99–103

nonmultinational group, multinational group

versus

subsidiary sales performance in
, 103–109

Economic growth and FDI
, 430, 431, 449

Employee mobility
, 268

European Pyramid Ownership Structures
, 91, 92

European Union (EU)
, 454

Export orientation
, 414

Factor markets
, 435–436, 440–443, 450–451

Field experiment
, 271, 274

Firm organization and knowledge internalization
, 349–350

Firm performance
, 89, 352, 392

Foreign acquisition
, 110–120

Foreign direct investment (FDI)
, 416, 430

spillovers
, 440, 444

GDP
, 166, 200, 396, 441, 453

General Electric Medical Systems (GEMS)
, 220

Geographical proximity
, 289, 293, 296, 310, 318, 325, 332, 334

Geographic concentration
, 4, 269, 298

and social norms
, 271–274

Geographic dispersion/global sourcing
, 23–24

Geography of collaboration

and knowledge spillover
, 353–356

Ghemawat’s AAA framework
, 10, 14, 17, 234

Globalization
, 40, 164, 183, 414, 449

Global outsourcing
, 230

Golden parachute
, 310–311, 316–318, 334

Google
, 203

Gourmet cuisine industry
, 269, 274

Granger Causality Test
, 419, 421

Growth
, 167, 168, 326, 429, 453

and FDI
, 430, 431, 449

Hague System
, 183

Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) data
, 236

Hausman test
, 287, 289, 290

Henkel
, 57, 58, 59, 68, 77

Herfindahl–Hirschman index (HHI)
, 23, 98, 123, 406

of geographic concentration
, 354

Heritage Foundation
, 240, 253

Hierarchical control and coordination systems
, 16

Higher trading costs, profits under
, 63

country-level simulations
, 68

Germany
, 75–80

Italy
, 68–75

United Kingdom
, 79

High-wage countries (HWCs)
, 388

import competition from
, 396–398

import penetration from
, 396

Home Region Outsourcer/Exporter group
, 42–43

Host country experience
, 127, 139

Huber–White sandwich estimator
, 288

Human capital
, 450, 455

Import competition
, 396–397

versus export orientation
, 414

and firms’ R&D expenditures
, 399

and innovation output
, 400–408

leader versus laggard
, 406–407

versus learning opportunities
, 410–414

and patent citations
, 418, 420

and technological competition
, 409–410

Industrialized countries
, 449

Industry life cycles
, 408, 409

Information transfer
, 268, 271, 298

Innovation

import competition and

controlling for export orientation
, 415

controlling for international R&D alliances
, 415

excluding intrafirm imports
, 417

quality of local innovations
, 359

cross-regional collaborations and
, 350

Innovation input
, 395–396, 399–400

Innovation output and import competition
, 399–408

Innovation to imports
, 416–419

Innovative ideas
, 347

Institutional IP tools
, 164, 165–181

Integration responsiveness (IR) framework
, 10, 12–15, 17

Intellectual Property (IP), capturing value from
, 163, 172, 177–178

appropriation strategy
, 164–165, 214

challenges with
, 181–213

complex value chains across countries
, 202–203

depending heavily on country institutions
, 183–190

enforcement of trademarks and industrial designs
, 203–209

government policy in IP affecting the competitive advantage of firms
, 210–213

IP protection
, 190–195

patent and trademark offices (PTOs)
, 195–203

technology helping to find infringers
, 210

conceptual framework
, 214

market mechanisms
, 214–224

nonmarket mechanisms
, 224–225

counterfeit
, 207, 224–225

grants
, 176, 177–178

implications for management practice
, 225–227

industrial design applications
, 187

litigation
, 188, 197–202

Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
, 188, 188–189

using institutional tools
, 165–181

Intellectual property rights
, 127, 197, 225, 298, 347, 378, 419

Intellectual ventures
, 224

Intercounty board interlock networks
, 322–323

Inter-industry spillovers
, 445

International configurations of US MNCs
, 9, 18–19

cluster results
, 26–36

geographic dispersion/global sourcing
, 23–24

global integration across value chain activities
, 22

local responsiveness in value chain activities
, 22–23

relevance of extant frameworks to US MNCs
, 37–39

underexplored configuration characteristics
, 39–44

International Country Risk Guide
, 239

International Mobile Station Equipment (IMEI) number
, 210

Inter-organizational network
, 16

Intrafirm trade and global sourcing
, 415–416

Invisible practices
, 311

diffusion of
, 314–319

unique features
, 312–314

Japanese multinational firms’ R&D activities
, 127, 152

Knowledge flows
, 4, 344, 345, 350

within firms
, 348, 355

Knowledge internalization

firm organization and
, 349–350

Knowledge spillover
, 344, 346, 379, 436, 437

across firms
, 348, 355

geography of collaboration and
, 353–356

horizontal spillovers
, 438, 447

vertical spillovers
, 454

Knowledge transfer
, 268

social norms and
, 269–271

Knowledge transfer likelihood
, 278, 290–292

Laundry detergent industry application
, 57

data
, 59–60

industry overview
, 57–59

modeling consumer demand for laundry detergents
, 60–63

Learning opportunities versus import competition
, 410–414

Li & Fung
, 234

Linkages
, 16, 437–438, 444–447, 452

Litigation
, 188, 197–202, 219

Local citations
, 357

Local knowledge spillover
, 363

Local patents, value of
, 364

Low-wage countries (LWCs)
, 388, 389, 391, 414, 422, 427

import competition from
, 396–398

import penetration from
, 396

Macro level complementarities
, 449

Madrid system
, 183

Market mechanisms
, 214–224

collaboration
, 218–219

combining different IP Tools
, 220

litigation
, 219

market power, exercising
, 215–218

sale and licensing
, 218

weak IP regimes
, 220–224

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A)
, 449

Michelin Guide
, 275

Misconduct
, 310, 311, 312, 334

Monopoly power
, 435

Motorola
, 203

Multi-location firms
, 358

Multinational (MNC) suppliers, sourcing from. See Sourcing from multinational suppliers

Multinational business groups
, 87

becoming a multinational group
, 110, 110–113

data
, 91–98

first foreign acquisition
, 113–120

versus domestic group

characteristics
, 99–103

subsidiary sales performance
, 103–109

Multinational corporations (MNCs)
, 4, 50, 89–90, 225, 347, 430, 439, 450

extant frameworks and value chain integration, responsiveness, and dispersion
, 17–18

organizational structure of
, 15–16

strategic choices of
, 12–15

See also International configurations of US MNCs

Multiple regional configurations
, 42–43

Multiproduct firms
, 56, 62

National Indigenous Innovation Regulations (NIIP)
, 211

NEC
, 204

Nokia
, 202, 222

Noncompete clauses
, 221

Nonmarket mechanisms
, 224–225

Non-Practicing Entity (NPE)
, 199

Offshore outsourcing
, 40–42

OLI framework
, 434

Ownership advantage
, 434

Own-price elasticities
, 55, 70

Parent firm basic research
, 139

Parent firm size
, 139

Patents
, 392

citations
, 299, 356, 357, 401–403

grants
, 178–179, 182

litigations
, 197–199, 200

patent and trademark offices (PTOs)
, 176, 192, 193–194, 195–197

Patent Convention Treaty (PCT) application system
, 183

registrations
, 180

short patent application
, 192

Payment Delays
, 253

Pharmaceutical companies

top 50, in, 2004
, 384–385

Pharmaceutical industry
, 351–353

R&D in
, 344

Physical proximity
, 271

Policy complementarities
, 443

Porter’s configuration-coordination framework
, 17

Portfolio investment
, 433

Procter and Gamble (P&G)
, 57–58, 63, 68, 81

Product-diversified firms, limited geographic scope of
, 43–44

Property rights
, 240, 243, 244, 268

Proximity
, 271, 272, 312, 335

Proximity-concentration hypothesis
, 50

Quality Brands Protection Committee
, 225

R&D activities in host countries
, 125, 150–154, 392

background and theory
, 128–131

data
, 131–135, 140–141

empirical model and dependent variables
, 135–136

empirical results
, 142, 147–180

pharmaceutical network
, 344

R&D expenditures
, 22, 152–153, 395

R&D intensity
, 32

R&D subsidiaries
, 3

university research, strength of
, 126–127, 129–130, 136–137

Random-effects models
, 287

Reallocation
, 436–437, 443–444, 451–452

Regional Low-Cost Seeking configuration
, 42–43

Research-intensive firms
, 352

Roche
, 344

Scenario-based experiment
, 274, 276, 299

Secrecy
, 215, 221, 313

Secret society
, 313

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
, 311

Securities Data Company (SDC)
, 412

Sobel test
, 290

Social capital
, 273

Social networks
, 268

Social norms
, 269, 277, 289, 298, 299

geographic concentration and
, 271–274

and knowledge transfer
, 269–271

Sourcing from multinational suppliers
, 229

arbitraging advantage
, 233

capabilities
, 230, 231, 233, 234, 248–250, 254, 259–261

contracting institutions
, 231, 232, 233

contract viability
, 239, 243, 244, 247, 251, 252, 254, 256–259, 260

correlations between institutional indices and GDP
, 255

hypotheses
, 232–235

Spatial diffusion of stock backdating
, 309

Spatial proximity
, 317

Speed and lead time
, 222

Spillovers
, 5, 431

knowledge spillover. See Knowledge spillover

technology spillovers
, 444

Spinoff companies
, 268

Standing Committee on the Law of Patents (SCP)
, 195

Stock backdating
, 311, 319–320

spatial diffusion of
, 312

in U.S. countries
, 330–331

Stopford and Wells’ study
, 10, 15, 16, 18, 43

Subsidiary sales performance in multinational versus nonmultinational groups
, 103–109

Substantive Patent Law Treaty (SPLT)
, 195

Technological competition and import competition
, 409–410

Technology clusters
, 346, 366

Technology spillovers
, 444

Trademarks
, 165, 166, 170, 203–209

Transnational corporation (TNC)
, 432

Transport costs, level of
, 52, 67

t-tests
, 245–246

Unilever
, 57, 58, 63, 68, 71

University–industry collaboration
, 144, 150

University strength and industry–university collaboration
, 151

US Harmonized HTS codes
, 240

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)
, 179, 352, 390, 410

U.S. registrations
, 180

Value chain activities
, 14–15, 17, 37, 45

global integration across
, 22

local responsiveness in
, 22–23

Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)
, 210

Wald test
, 144

Web of Science (WoS) publication
, 137

World Development Indicators
, 258

World Intellectual Property Office (WIPO)
, 164