Business model research has long focused on external triggers, drivers, and enablers of business model adoption. What is less well known is how business models are adopted in practice. Using a conceptual framework developed by Baden-Fuller and Mangematin, we propose 16 ideal types of business models. Based on a qualitative comparative analysis of 77 businesses, we explore the antecedents of these business model types, paying particular attention to multi-sided models, which are growing in prominence, and require businesses to manage complexity and interdependencies. Surprisingly, our analyses reveal that tools developed to support business design, creativity, or visualization were systematically absent from the operationalization of complex, multi-sided business models. The paper contributes to our understanding in three ways: (1) it reveals how businesses with complex, multi-sided models are crafted using heuristics rather than rational business model design tools, (2) it highlights consistent relationships between the practices employed during business creation/reconfiguration and the business models that are adopted, and (3) it opens fruitful research avenues to develop tools to support heuristics in business design and implementation.
We extend our thanks to Charles Baden-Fuller, Tatiana Mikhalkina, and the rest of the Cass team for providing us with an insightful workshop at which to present our preliminary work. Special thanks to Charles-Clemens Rüling and our reviewers, and to participants of the MOTI seminar in Grenoble, and of the ANR project for their meticulous comments. We also thank Jon Morgan of Paraphrase for his careful and insightful editing assistance. Finally, we would like to thank the ANR (2013 ANR BBM ANR-13-SOIN-0001) and EPSRC UK Research Council (grant EP/K039695/1 Building Better Business Models) for funding this research.
Rumble, R. and Mangematin, V. (2015), "Business Model Implementation: The Antecedents of Multi-Sidedness", Business Models and Modelling (Advances in Strategic Management, Vol. 33), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 97-131. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0742-332220150000033021Download as .RIS
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