Malice – knowingly doing harm – has been attributed to special education, threatening its continued existence. Malicious education may include inferior education, exclusion from opportunities, miseducation, unnecessary stigmatization, or failure to meet individual needs. Malice may be overt or covert, unselective or selective, or be directed toward those included or those excluded. Attributions of malice may be evaluated by a series of questions comprising a decision model, and this decision model may be applied to attributions of malice to special education. Suggestions that special education is malicious are not confirmed by application of the decision model. False accusations that special education is malicious are derived from inappropriate comparisons, unreasonable expectations, and assertions that are not grounded in realities.
Kauffman, J.M. (2009), "Attributions of malice to special education policy and practice", Scruggs, T.E. and Mastropieri, M.A. (Ed.) Policy and Practice (Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, Vol. 22), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 33-66. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0735-004X(2009)0000022004
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