Index

Worlds of Rankings

ISBN: 978-1-80117-106-9, eISBN: 978-1-80117-105-2

ISSN: 0733-558X

Publication date: 22 July 2021

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2021), "Index", Ringel, L., Espeland, W., Sauder, M. and Werron, T. (Ed.) Worlds of Rankings (Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Vol. 74), Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. 245-252. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0733-558X20210000074025

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Leopold Ringel, Wendy Espeland, Michael Sauder and Tobias Werron


INDEX

Academic capitalism
, 4

Academic excellence
, 6, 11, 63, 148

Access to Medicine Foundation
, 8, 54, 84–86, 94, 99

Access to Medicine Index
, 8, 10–11, 54, 78–79, 84 (see also Global Slavery Index (GSI))

analysis
, 85–92

history
, 84–85

Access to Nutrition Index
, 78

Accountability
, 4, 31, 155–157, 160, 203

Accounting and caring through numbers
, 155–157

Achievement
, 128

brief history of early baseball
, 130–132

champions
, 128–130, 141–146

formation of competitive baseball discourse
, 133–141

imaginary
, 129

Aid Transparency Index
, 2, 15–16

Alignment
, 169

devices
, 10, 29–30, 48

tools
, 49

Alink-Argerich Foundation (AAF)
, 202–203

American baseball
, 14, 128–130

American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine
, 132

Analyst Relations professional (AR pro)
, 17, 227, 229, 237–238

Antagonism
, 81

Art
, 58, 83, 201–202, 206

Artist Ranking
, 54

Artistry devaluation in skating
, 213–215

#ArtRank
, 72

Associated Press
, 111

Audit society
, 154, 177

Audits
, 8, 154

Automobile Association
, 8

Averages
, 136–141

Ball Player’s Chronicle, The
, 130, 140

Baseball
, 128, 131–132, 140

Beadle’s Dime Base-Ball Player
, 130, 132, 139–140

Benchmarks
, 2, 5–6, 8, 61, 88, 108, 182

Berlin Principles
, 9

Better Life Index
, 36, 43–45, 47–48

Boundary making
, 11

Bourdieusian field theory
, 3, 11

Box scores
, 136–141

Brooklyn Daily Eagle
, 129, 132, 139, 142–143

Business strategies
, 9

Business Week
, 106

Care
, 9, 14, 157, 167–168

Careers
, 104

Caring capitalism
, 92

Caring for numbers
, 161

contexting
, 165–168

validating numbers
, 161–165

Centre for Science and Technology Studies of Leiden University (CWTS Leiden Ranking)
, 8

Champions
, 128–130, 141

championship between excitement and discord
, 141–144

first league and rankings
, 145–146

Championship

between excitement and discord
, 141–144

game
, 135

Civil War
, 132

Classical music, evaluation in
, 201–205

Clinical registries
, 154

Colors
, 34–35, 43, 165–166

Commensuration
, 5–6

Communication

staffers
, 59, 65, 68, 71, 73

technologies
, 131

Comparisons
, 2, 5–6, 18, 41–43, 135, 137

Competition
, 82–84, 92, 133–135, 202–203, 222

point accumulation in skating
, 205–207

preparation
, 205

rankings
, 79

varying flexibility in music
, 207–209

Competitive baseball discourse

from box scores to averages
, 136–141

formation of
, 133–141

new morals
, 133–135

observing performances
, 135–136

Competitive rivalry
, 222, 225, 240–241

Composite metrics
, 190

Conformance
, 222, 224–225

Constraints on optimization
, 187–188

Consumer Assessment of Health Plan Studies (CAHPS)
, 181

Contexting
, 165–168

experimenting
, 166–168

referencing
, 165–166

Conventional league tables
, 32

Corporatist system
, 158

Corruption Perception Index
, 54, 106–107

COVID-19 crisis
, 36, 49

Cricket
, 130–131

Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)
, 35–36

Customization
, 30, 48

Data colonization
, 28, 33

Deliberation-based evaluation
, 201

Department for International Development (DFID)
, 100

DeWit’s Base-Ball Guide
, 132

Diffusion of organizational practices
, 14

Digital transformations
, 70, 73

Digitalization
, 55

Disclosure devices
, 54, 72

Discourse communities
, 33

Discursive analysis of rankings
, 34–35

Disease activity score (DAS 28*)
, 159–160

“Dollar per day” measure
, 36, 43

Dutch healthcare system
, 158

E-mails
, 68–69

Early baseball, brief history of
, 130–132

Ease of Doing Business Index
, 15, 54

Edutainment
, 30, 38

Effects of rankings
, 14–17

Emergence of Rankings in American Baseball
, 14

Emotion(s)
, 16

work
, 72

Employees
, 8, 58, 64, 67, 72, 161, 187

English sporting ideal of amateurism
, 131

Evaluation
, 200

competition preparation
, 205–209

data and methods
, 204–205

effects of
, 201

in figure skating vs. classical music
, 201–205

judging technical vs. artistic factors
, 209–213

practices
, 200

technical and artistic effects on performance
, 213–216

Experience surveys
, 181

Experiences Survey on Care (ESC)
, 181, 189, 191

Experimenting
, 166–168

Expert Review Committee (ERC)
, 49, 86–87, 91

Face-to-face interactions
, 65–68

Fields
, 7, 11, 63, 177, 201, 218

Figure skating, evaluation in
, 201–205

Financial Secrecy Index
, 107

Fluidity in music
, 211–213

Formal organizations
, 57

Formalization
, 183, 216 (see also Visualization of rankings)

degree of
, 18

general lack
, 218

Foucault’s theory of surveillance
, 4

Freedom in World report
, 108

Freedom of Thought Index
, 67

Freewheeling method
, 129

Funding
, 9, 49, 58

Gaming
, 225

process
, 240

responses
, 224

strategies
, 222

Garbage can model
, 177

conditions foster or inhibit satisficing
, 189–190

data and methods
, 181–182

features
, 179

and metrics
, 177–180

metrics shape
, 193–194

organizational responses to patient experience surveys
, 182–188

patient experience measures
, 180–181

unintended effects
, 191–193

Global governance
, 28–29, 33, 35–36, 45–46

Global North
, 28, 33, 43

Global Slavery Index (GSI)
, 13, 104, 110

categorical distribution of media articles
, 111

count of media articles
, 124–125

data and methodology
, 109–110

global burden and shared complicity
, 115–119

links to GSI reports
, 124

media coverage
, 104

news headlines
, 112–113

ranking
, 107–109

worst offenders
, 113–115

Global South
, 4–5, 28, 33, 40, 43

Globalization studies
, 4–5

Goffman
, 55–57, 60, 63, 65, 73

Good distribution
, 8, 63

Governance
, 15, 170

forms
, 6, 81

global
, 28–29, 33, 35–36, 45–46

public
, 32

Government agencies
, 9, 58, 86

Government response
, 109, 113, 115–116

Grade of execution (GOE)
, 204

Graphical expressions
, 32

Graphics
, 9, 34, 56, 63, 70, 200

Grids
, 31

Headings
, 34

Health Action International
, 86, 100

Healthcare
, 154, 170, 179–180

Hierarchization
, 5

Higher education
, 2, 32, 58

importance
, 183

ranking institutions
, 9

research
, 4

HiVOS
, 100

Horse racing
, 130–131

Hospital performance indicators, basic set of
, 158–159

Human Development Index (

HDR2019)
, 70, 72

Hunting
, 130–131

Icons
, 34

Identity
, 14, 16

Index Executive Committee
, 87

Indicators
, 5, 16, 169, 189

landscapes
, 61

performance
, 154–155, 158–159

SDG
, 36

wellbeing
, 43

Indices
, 5, 62, 107, 222

Indirect competition
, 10, 78, 81, 93

Individuals
, 32, 37–38, 57, 71, 113, 120, 176

Informants
, 8, 16, 60, 62–64, 67, 70, 228, 234

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
, 65, 73

Information technology (IT)
, 222

Innovest Strategic Value Advisors
, 85, 100

Institute for Industry Analyst Relations
, 227

Institutionalization of rankings
, 10–14

Interactive data
, 37–39

displays
, 10

visualization
, 29, 37–38

Interactive ranking
, 41–43

comparisons and
, 41–43

visualizations
, 33

Interactive visualization
, 30, 37–38, 47

Interactivity
, 30, 36, 42, 47

design criteria of
, 39

elements
, 41

Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility (ICCR)
, 90

Internalization of institutional pressures
, 177

International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations (IFPMA)
, 86–87

International judging system (IJS)
, 203

rulebook
, 210, 214

seminars
, 204–205

International Olympic Committee (IOC)
, 202

“International Organisations and the Rise of a Global Metrological Field” project
, 29

International organizations
, 15, 29–30, 46, 58, 61

International Skating Union (ISU)
, 202

Interpretative flexibility of ranking visualizations
, 32

Investors
, 80–81, 85–86, 93–95

Issue-based message
, 30

power of
, 39–43

Judging
, 200

distinction and emphasis in skating
, 209–211

fluidity in music
, 211–213

technical vs. artistic factors
, 209–213

Knickerbockers Base Ball Club of New York
, 131

League system
, 14, 128–130, 133, 145, 147

League tables
, 6–7, 29, 32, 34, 130, 145, 147

“Look and touch” age
, 37, 41

Magic quadrants
, 2, 8–9, 32, 225–226

Major League Baseball
, 129

Marketization
, 5

Mass media
, 13, 56, 69, 105

Match game
, 133, 135

MAXQDA software
, 58, 109

Measures
, 7, 176, 192–193

performance
, 30

public
, 2, 7, 17, 55

quantitative
, 29

Mechanical objectivity
, 30, 177

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)
, 84, 88

Media
, 64, 104

mass
, 13, 56, 69, 105

outlets
, 9, 58, 109, 112

rankings and
, 105–106

Mediated interactions
, 65–66, 68–69

Mediated online interaction
, 66, 71–72

Mediated quasi-interaction
, 66, 69–71

Mediatization
, 55, 106

Merck
, 100

Meteos
, 100

Metrics
, 154, 156, 176–180 (see also Performance metrics)

organizational responses to
, 178

shape garbage can
, 193–194

Millennium Development Goals
, 28

Mixed-methods approach
, 200

Motherland of sports
, 129

MSCI Group
, 85, 99

Multi-stakeholder initiatives
, 80, 83

Multidimensional poverty index (MPI)
, 42

Multivocality
, 30

of ranking visualization
, 43–45

Music

discouraging artistic freedom in
, 215–216

fluidity in
, 211–213

varying flexibility in
, 207–209

Naming and shaming
, 32, 36, 45

Narratives
, 30, 62–63, 105

National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP)
, 132, 134–135, 143

National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (NAPBBP)
, 130, 134–135, 143, 145

National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW)
, 159–161

Negotiation of rankings
, 10–14

Neoliberalism theories
, 4

Netherlands
, 14, 158–159, 163, 170

New York Clipper
, 129, 132, 142

New York Morning News, The
, 138

New York Times
, 132

New York Weekly Mercury
, 132

News headlines
, 112–113

News on the Web corpus (NOW corpus)
, 109–110

News stories
, 69–71

Newsrooms
, 106

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
, 58, 67, 80, 87, 93, 95

Novartis
, 100

Numbering practices
, 154–155

Numerical assessments
, 6

Objective social values
, 94

OECD
, 29, 36, 45, 106

Olympics
, 202–203

Online workshops
, 69

Open Comparisons Team (OCT)
, 164

Organizational measurement
, 177

emergence and persistence
, 178

proliferation
, 177

Organizational/organizations
, 7, 32, 59, 62, 222

formal
, 57

international
, 58

measures
, 175–176

metrics
, 176

practices
, 56

responses to metrics
, 178

uncertainty
, 178

Organized anarchy
, 178, 189, 193

Organizing uncertainty
, 79

Our World in Data
, 36

Partners
, 62, 64, 67, 71, 73

Patient experience measures
, 180–181

Patient experience surveys

constraints on optimization
, 187–188

creation of new problems
, 183–184

organizational responses to
, 182

uncertainty about outcomes
, 186–187

uncertainty in development of solutions
, 184–186

Patient satisfaction
, 17, 180–181

Patient-centered care
, 180

Pedestrianism
, 130–131

Performance
, 56

indicators
, 154–155, 158–159

measurement
, 28–29, 33–35, 79

Performance metrics
, 154

accounting and caring through numbers
, 155–157

caring for numbers
, 161–168

data analysis
, 160

methods
, 157–160

Performativity
, 55, 72, 162

Pigeon Paradise rankings (PIPA rankings)
, 2

PISA study
, 2, 12, 54

PISA-Shock
, 12

Point accumulation in skating
, 205–207

Porter’s Spirit of the Times
, 132

Post-colonial theories
, 4

Poverty measurement
, 29, 33, 37

Practice
, 222–223, 232–239

Pre-established patterns
, 56–57

Prevalence ranking
, 109

Production process
, 8

Programme for International Student Development (PISA)
, 72

Psychological therapy
, 156

Public measures
, 2, 7, 10

Publics
, 80

Pugilism
, 130–131

QS World University Rankings (QSWUR)
, 72

Quantification
, 6, 28, 62, 177

Rankers
, 59, 61, 63–64, 79–80, 95, 106

characteristics and activities
, 9

internal strategies to engage
, 229–232

Rankings
, 2, 5, 28, 53–54, 128, 154, 193, 222

as “alignment devices” in global public policy
, 47–49

backstage of ranking performances
, 60–65

big firework
, 65–72

conceptual considerations
, 5–7

conceptualizing rankings as public performances
, 55–57

without critique
, 39–41

critiques
, 3–5

effects of
, 14–17

entrepreneurs
, 56, 79

finding launch date
, 60–62

first league and
, 145–146

GSI
, 107–109

and media
, 105–106

negotiation and institutionalization
, 10–14

organizations
, 63

packaging numbers
, 62–63

pattern competitive rivalries in new ways
, 240–241

preparing team
, 63–65

producers
, 8–10

research site
, 58–60

scholarship
, 2

studying rankings as public performances
, 72–74

in transnational governance
, 94

ubiquity and reactivity
, 30–31

visual and discursive analysis
, 34–35

Ratings
, 2, 5–6, 190, 203

Reactivity
, 5, 176, 200

Red Stockings
, 135, 144

Referencing
, 165–166

Reflexive transformation
, 16

Regulatory capitalism
, 78

Regulatory regimes
, 15

Research centers
, 9, 58

Research-driven registries
, 159

#ResourceGovernanceIndex
, 72

Responsible Mining Index
, 78

Reuters
, 111

Rheumatology quality registry
, 159–160

Rituals of verification
, 177

Rivalry
, 222

competitive
, 225

effects
, 223–225

Rowing
, 130–131

Rules
, 200–203

Sanofi
, 100

Scholars
, 222

Scholarship

on performativity
, 55–56

on rankings
, 31

Science & Technology Studies (STS)
, 155–156

Scorers
, 139

Scoring
, 136–141

system
, 138–139

Season-long competition, indirect and serial form of
, 146

Self-fulfilling prophecies
, 5, 31, 176–177, 193

Self-service analytics
, 37–39

Simmel
, 78, 81, 89, 93, 95

Single source of truth
, 38, 43, 47

6.0 system
, 203, 206, 209

Skating
, 202

artistry devaluation in
, 213–215

distinction and emphasis in
, 209–211

point accumulation in
, 205–207

Skype
, 58

calls
, 63

conferences
, 68–69

Sociability
, 133–135

Social media
, 71–72

platforms
, 66

teams
, 73

Social science scholarship
, 2

“Soft” governance function of rankings
, 29

Spalding’s Official Baseball Guide
, 132

Sporting press
, 132

Sports

rankings
, 128

tables and statistics
, 128

Stakeholders
, 80

equipping gaze of
, 88–92

as third parties
, 81–84

unifying stakeholder voice
, 85–88

Statistics
, 133, 136–141

Strategy of rankings
, 222–223, 239–240

data analysis
, 227–228

data collection
, 227

findings
, 229

internal strategies to engage rankers
, 229–232

setting
, 225–227

strategic practices organizations
, 232–239

theoretical context
, 223–225

Subjective motives
, 82, 94

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
, 28

Tracker
, 36

Sustainalytics
, 100

Sweden
, 14, 109, 159–161, 170

Swedish Association for Local Municipalities and Regions (SALAR)
, 159–160

Swedish Society for Rheumatologists (SSR)
, 159

Tableau
, 29, 35, 37, 39

Tables
, 31, 136–141

Tax Justice Network
, 70

Team
, 55, 57, 64, 92, 132, 142, 144

Technical and artistic effects on performance
, 213–216

devaluation of artistry in skating
, 213–215

discouraging artistic freedom in music
, 215–216

Technical-Sub-Committees (TSCs)
, 86

Telephone calls
, 68–69

Themes
, 18, 62, 160

Third parties
, 78

identification and construction
, 82

stakeholders as
, 81–84

Time factors
, 190

Times Higher Education (THE)
, 54, 66

Global Summits
, 66–67

ranking
, 54

Tours
, 135, 145

Transnational governance
, 107–108

Transparency
, 4, 158

Transparency International (TI)
, 8, 106

Transport technologies
, 131

Tribune
, 132

TripAdvisor
, 9

Two-fold methodological approach
, 29

Uncertainty
, 178–179

in development of solutions
, 184–186

about outcomes
, 186–187

Union of Morrisania
, 129

Universities
, 2, 58

global field
, 11

rankings
, 157

US Trafficking in Persons Report
, 107

Validating numbers
, 161

checking and re-checking data
, 163–165

constructing performance metrics
, 161–162

measuring illness
, 163

Valuation
, 228, 231

Value neutrality
, 5

Variations
, 15, 176

Virtue
, 107

Virtuosity
, 107

Visual analysis of rankings
, 34–35

Visual mode
, 34

Visualization of rankings
, 8, 28, 63

data sources and analysis
, 35–36

findings
, 37–45

in global public policy
, 29, 33–34

interpreting and performing
, 31–33

methodological considerations
, 34–36

softening communicative power of
, 46–47

theoretical approaches
, 30–34

Visualizers’ work
, 37–39

Walk Free Foundation
, 107

Web metrics in journalism
, 178

Websites
, 69–71

Wilkes’ Spirit of the Times
, 132

World Bank
, 29

World Benchmarking Alliance
, 78

World Federation of International Music Competitions (WFIMC)
, 202

World Health Organization (WHO)
, 86–87, 100

Worst offenders
, 113–115

Yachting
, 130–131

Zero-sum comparisons
, 6–7, 108

Zoom
, 58