We analyze how Brazilian Black Movement organizations and banks deployed different mechanisms like cooperation, cooptation, and confrontation that generated affirmative action initiatives in the banking sector at the beginning of this century. Black movement organizations triggered an institutional change by connecting fields and exploring a constellation of strategies. However, Brazilian banks adopted defensive strategies aiming to accommodate their interests. We find that only piecemeal change occurred, as the field’s structures – resource distribution and power – remained unscratched. We conclude by noting how the success of social movement strategies can depend upon the framing and sense-giving work that social movements conduct in their continuous jockeying activity toward incumbents.
Alves, M.A. and Gomes, M.V.P. (2018), "Failure or Success? Defensive Strategies and Piecemeal Change among Racial Inequalities in the Brazilian Banking Sector", Briscoe, F., King, B.G. and Leitzinger, J. (Ed.) Social Movements, Stakeholders and Non-Market Strategy (Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Vol. 56), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 317-348. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0733-558X20180000056012
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