We show how organizational forms shape job structures, specifically the variety and types of jobs employees hold, extending previous research on job structures in four ways. First, the social codes associated with wineries’ generalist and specialist forms constrain the number of jobs and functional areas delineated by job titles. Second, form-based constraints are weakened by institutional rules that impose categorical distinctions on organizations. Third, these constraints are stronger when there is more consensus around forms. Fourth, these constraints are contingent on the legitimacy and resources of organizations of varying ages and sizes.
We are grateful to Greta Hsu, Jennifer Kurkoski, Michael Lounsbury, Giacomo Negro, and Ezra Zuckerman for insightful comments. We also thank the Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy (ISERP) at Columbia University and the Graduate School of Management at U.C. Davis for financially supporting data collection. Mukti Khaire, Jong Hyang Oh, Arik Lifschitz, and Lori Yue helped code data.
Haveman, H.A., Swaminathan, A. and Johnson, E.B. (2016), "Structure at Work: Organizational Forms and the Division of Labor in U.S. Wineries", The Structuring of Work in Organizations (Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Vol. 47), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 195-239. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0733-558X20160000047019
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