Transformational leadership has been found to positively influence employee attitudes and behaviors. However, research also has shown that a variety of task and motivational factors lead to similar outcomes. Yet, little research has explored the potential interaction of transformational leadership with these other factors. We utilize fuzzy-set/qualitative comparative analysis to explore the ways these factors may interact to produce positive employee outcomes. Specifically, we found that high levels of employee commitment and performance can be achieved in the absence of a transformational leader through various “bundles” of enriched jobs, challenging goals, and high quality leader–follower relationships.
Lee Whittington, J., McKee, V., Goodwin, V. and Greg Bell, R. (2013), "Chapter 12 Applying Fuzzy Set Methodology to Evaluate Substitutes for Leadership", Fiss, P., Cambré, B. and Marx, A. (Ed.) Configurational Theory and Methods in Organizational Research (Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Vol. 38), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 279-302. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0733-558X(2013)0000038016Download as .RIS
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