Corruption has been defined in different ways by various scholars and organizations according to cultural, legal, or other factors (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2008, p. 22). The word “corruption” is derived from the Latin word corruptus and, according to the dictionary, it has six possible meanings: dishonesty for personal gain; depravity; undesirable change; corrupting of something; altered word or phrase; or rotting.1 However, the most useful typology of contemporary social science definitions of corruption is Arnold J. Heidenheimer's typology of three major types of definitions (Heidenheimer, 1970, pp. 4–6).
Quah, J.S.T. (2010), "Chapter 9 Combating corruption", Quah, J.S.T. (Ed.) Public Administration Singapore-style (Research in Public Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 19), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 171-198. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0732-1317(2010)0000019014
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