Index

The Capitalist Commodification of Animals

ISBN: 978-1-83982-681-8, eISBN: 978-1-83982-680-1

ISSN: 0161-7230

Publication date: 30 November 2020

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2020), "Index", Clark, B. and Wilson, T.D. (Ed.) The Capitalist Commodification of Animals (Research in Political Economy, Vol. 35), Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 205-212. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0161-723020200000035014

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited.


INDEX

Abstract

labor
, 63, 67–71, 82–83

life
, 62, 85–88

mind
, 60–61, 67–71

system
, 61–62

Abstraction

of mind
, 60

process
, 62

Abstractness of social “second nature”
, 69

Academic knowledge production
, 17–18

Acindar
, 191–192

Adorno, Theodor
, 71

Advertisement using animal symbols
, 25

Aesthetics
, 167–174

Affirmative ideology
, 166

Agribusiness of landowner ethics
, 176–178

Agriculture
, 163–167

Alienated speciesism
, 3

Amazon warehouses
, 85

Animal Capital: Rendering Life in Biopolitical Times (Shukin)
, 16

Animal Machines (Harrison)
, 127

Animal Rights/Human Rights: Entanglements of Oppression and Liberation (Nibert)
, 12, 134

Animal welfare
, 108–109, 108

implementation in learning and embedded markets
, 115–117

as social cost
, 117

Animal-based commodities in capitalism
, 17–18

Animal(s)
, 22, 25, 86

as biotic community
, 167–169

capital
, 11, 16–26

ethics
, 108–109

exploitation and oppression
, 15

as “functional biomachines”
, 85–88

harm
, 108

harming
, 42

“Anthropocene, the”
, 14

Anthropocentrism
, 148–154

Apocalypse
, 64–65

Arendt, Hannah
, 35

Argentina
, 184

labor and violence in
, 186–190

studies on violence in
, 186

Villa Constitución
, 190–192

Villazo, repression and armed struggles
, 192–200

Aristotle
, 48

Armed struggles in Argentina
, 192–200

Artificial insemination
, 42

Artificial life
, 66–67

on dead planet
, 74–76

Artificial nature
, 34

Artificial trees
, 88–94

Astor, John Jacob
, 128–129

Aya, Rod
, 185

Balcombe, Jonathan
, 39

Battery chickens
, 86

Bekoff, Marc
, 39

BHP
, 93

Biodiversity
, 177–178

Bioethics
, 108–109

Biopolitical sovereignty
, 12

Biotic community
, 167–169

Blake, William
, 38

Blühdorn, Ingolfur
, 94

“Boundless Bull”
, 45

Bourgeault, Ron
, 130

Bourgeois class
, 84–85

Bowring, Finn
, 62, 77, 85–86, 94–95

Boyd, William
, 63

Braverman, Harry
, 63

Brazil
, 41–42

Brazilian State of Mato Grosso
, 43–44

Brügger, Paul
, 3–4

Burket, Paul
, 22–24

Cangiano, Maria Cecilia
, 198–199

Capital
, 22, 62–63, 79, 84, 96

abstracts
, 80

of animal capital
, 26

indifference of
, 76–85

productive labor for
, 78

subsumption of science by
, 71–74

Capital (Marx)
, 1–2, 11, 19–20, 70, 84

Capital–animal relation
, 23

Capitalism
, 1–2, 12–13, 16–17, 26, 60–61, 69, 138, 164, 173–174

Capitalist

agricultural methods
, 138, 145–146, 149

agriculture
, 62–63

commodification of animals
, 3

process of circulation
, 19–20

production
, 62–63

system
, 1–2

Capitalocene
, 95

Carbon capture
, 91–92

Carbon Engineering
, 91–92

Carson, Rachel
, 88

Cartesian concept of “animal machine”
, 38

Cats
, 39–40

Caudwell, Christopher
, 69

Cecil (lion)
, 45

Charlton, A.
, 45–46

Cheap labor
, 129–133

power
, 126–127

Cheap Nature
, 126, 134–135

Cheap raw materials
, 127–129

Chevron Technology Ventures
, 93

Circular hunts
, 143

Clark, Brett
, 126, 127

Class exploitation
, 19

C—M—C formula
, 20

Co-modification of nonhuman animals
, 40–45

Colony collapse disorder
, 89

Commercialization of universities
, 74

Commodification
, 97, 108, 113

of animals
, 43–44, 125–126

changing scenario through education
, 45–50

contemporary commodification of fur-bearing animals
, 133–134

of labor power
, 21

of nature
, 34–36

Commodity
, 1–2

exchange
, 69

fetishism
, 69

Common sense morality
, 109–110

Commoner, Barry
, 62–63, 92–93

Comte, Auguste
, 67

Conclusive evidence
, 89–90

Confederación General del Trabajo (CGT)
, 184–185, 188–189, 192–193

Confederación General Económica (CGE)
, 188–189

Consciousness in nonhuman animals
, 38–40

Consented Instrumentalization
, 111

Consented objectification. See Self-objectification

Conservation

history
, 163

new vision of
, 163–167

problem on private land
, 172

Conservation Ethic, The
, 173–174

Contemporary acceleration
, 35

Contemporary planetary crisis
, 37–38

Coordinadoras Gremiales de Buenos Aires
, 184–185

Cordobazo
, 188–189

Corporeal continuity and distinction
, 1

“Counter producing” effects
, 199

COVID-19 pandemic
, 82–83

Crick, Francis
, 74

“Critique of the Gotha Program”
, 149

“Cultural-materialist analysis” of animal capital
, 16

Culture of abstraction
, 3–4, 59–61

Daly, Herman
, 45, 48

Darling, Jay “Ding”
, 172

Darling, Jay Norwood
, 151

Darwin, Charles
, 39

Davis, Karen
, 85–86

De Angelis, Massimo
, 82

Dead planet
, 66–67

artificial life on
, 74–76

Debord, Guy
, 61–62

“Degradation” of work
, 63

Descartes, René
, 2

and objectification of nature and nonhuman animals
, 36–38

Deskilling
, 80–81

Dewey, John
, 116–117

Dick, Philip. K.
, 65, 66

Direct Air Capture technology
, 91–92

Direct wage
, 129–130

Disaster capitalism
, 74–76

Discourse on the Method (Descartes)
, 36–37

DNA sequence
, 86

Dogs
, 39–40

Dolin, Eric Jay
, 127, 129

Donaldson, Sue
, 13, 114

Double Movement
, 116–117

Dystopia
, 64–65

Ecological/ecology
, 167–174

aesthetic
, 169–171

conscience
, 171–174

of nonliving
, 88–94

Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts, The
, 62

Economic/economy

consequences
, 89–90

modernization
, 188

objectification
, 108

production
, 17–18

three-level model for animal instrumentalization in
, 110–113

Ecosystems
, 40–45

Education, changing scenario through
, 45–50

Edwards, Murray
, 93

Elton, Charles
, 175–176

Embedded markets, animal welfare implementation in
, 115–117

Endangered Species Act
, 175, 177–178

Engels, Frederick
, 67, 83

Entrepreneurial innovation
, 71

Environment(al)
, 37

crisis
, 38

degradation of Earth
, 76

education
, 47

Epistemology
, 69

Ethics
, 167–174

Euro-Americans
, 142–143

relationship
, 138

European Union
, 51, 89–90

Experiential learning
, 116

Exploitation
, 108, 113

Exploitative objectification
, 114

Externalities
, 93–94

Extinction
, 138, 139, 140–141, 143, 156

Fachos
, 198

Factory society
, 83

Federación Obrera Regional Argentina (FORA)
, 193–194

Fordism
, 74

Fossil capital
, 14–15

Foster, John Bellamy
, 64, 126–127, 177

Francione, Gary
, 13, 45–46

Franklin, Rosalind
, 74

“Functional biomachines”, animals as
, 85–88

Fur farming
, 133

Fur trapping
, 126

Fur-bearing animals, contemporary commodification of
, 133–134

Galileo
, 69

Game Management
, 170

Gates, Bill
, 93

Gene editing
, 87–88

Genetically modified (transgenic) livestock
, 86–87

Geoengineering
, 75

Gilpin, William
, 143

Glyphosate
, 43–44

Gore, Al
, 150

Government

provision
, 174–175

regulation
, 163, 165–166

Greek, R.
, 43

Greer, Allan
, 130–131

Habitat destruction
, 44

Hardt, Michael
, 16–17, 83

Harman, Chris
, 74

Harrison, Ruth
, 127

Heterodox economic analysis
, 116

Homestead Act
, 143–144

Horkheimer, Max
, 10, 71

Hudson Bay Company
, 126–127

Human(s)
, 13–14, 16

capitalist class
, 11

consciousness
, 64

exploitation and oppression
, 15

resource
, 50

Human–animal

abstraction
, 11–16

relations
, 111

Human–nonhuman animal relationships
, 1

Hunters
, 145

sport hunters creation in United States
, 145–148

Hunting industry
, 145

Imperialism
, 12–13

Indifference
, 96

of capital
, 76–85

Industrial Revolution
, 14

Industrial workers community
, 190–191

Inertial motion
, 69

Instrumentalities
, 40

Instrumentalization
, 108

of nature
, 51

Instrumentalization of animals
, 107–108

theoretical background
, 113–115

three-level model for
, 110–113

Intraspecific selective speciesism
, 40

Intratribal violence
, 127–128

Jacobson, Brynna
, 3–4

JBS
, 17, 25–26

Juan Carlos Marín
, 194–195

Jungle, The (Sinclair)
, 9–11, 26, 86

Kallis, Giorgos
, 23

Kantian philosophy
, 107–108, 114–115

Kantian roots of objectification
, 108

Kardulias, P. Nick
, 131

Kevlar
, 87–88

Keynesianism
, 74

Klein, Naomi
, 74–75

Knowledge economy
, 71

Kraig Biocraft Laboratories
, 87–88

Kymlicka, Will
, 13, 114

Labor

in Argentina
, 186–190

power
, 70

resistance
, 195

Laborers
, 21

Labour
, 68

Land

as biotic community
, 167–169

as commodity and right of wildlife
, 174–176

Land/landowner ethic
, 162

agribusiness, wildlife, and limitation of
, 176–178

ecology, aesthetics, and ethics
, 167–174

Latham, Rob
, 84

Learning, animal welfare implementation in
, 115–117

Lenin, V. I.
, 70–71

Leopold, Aldo
, 3–4, 140–141, 147–148, 150–151, 161–164

components of land ethic idea
, 167–174

game program
, 165

interest in ethical consumerism and product labeling
, 166–167

land as commodity and right of wildlife
, 174–176

wild husbandry
, 164–165

Levidow, Les
, 62–63

Lewontin, Richard
, 177

Leyk, Wolfgang
, 3–4

Live export
, 42

Livestock
, 44, 139

creation
, 141–145

wolves and people before
, 139–141

Living dead
, 64

LLC
, 93

Locke, John
, 142, 148–149

Logos-Eros disruption
, 38

Lynch, Merrill
, 45

‘M-C-M’ formula
, 1–2, 80

Macbeth (Shakespeare)
, 50–51

Macdonald, Bradley J.
, 3

Maintenance
, 129–130

Malm, Andreas
, 13–14

Manfredo
, 151–152

Manual labor
, 69

Marcuse, Herbert
, 3–4, 34–36, 38, 42, 48–49, 51–52, 71

Market relation
, 19–20

Marshall, Robert
, 150

Marx, Karl
, 1–2, 19–20, 62, 66–67, 76, 78–79, 84, 95–96, 127, 131–132, 141–142, 148–149

formal and real subsumption of labor
, 63

Marx and Nature (Burket)
, 23–24

Marxism
, 59–60

Mass commodification
, 113

“Master”
, 70

M—C (L + MP) …P (L + MP) …C’ (C + c)—M’ (M + m) formula
, 21–22, 24

McIntosh, Robert
, 168–169

‘M—C—M’ (M + m) formula
, 20

Meat industry
, 86

Meillassoux, Claude
, 129–130

Meine, Curt
, 162

Mental conception
, 69

Metcon industries
, 191

Mexican Gray wolves
, 154

Microresistances
, 52

Militaristic “barrack-like discipline”
, 70

Mills, C. Wright
, 96

Mink farming
, 133

Money
, 81, 83, 95–96

Montoneros
, 198–199

Moore, Jason W.
, 95–96, 126

Muir, Bill
, 66–67

Mule Deer Foundation
, 147–148

Mütherich, Birgit
, 13

Mutual benefit
, 111–112

Mycoplasma genitalium
, 76–77

Nanotechnology
, 34–35

Nash, Roderick
, 162–163, 175

National Game Conference
, 165

Natural production
, 17–18

Nature
, 84–85

commodication of
, 34–36

objectification of
, 36–38

of things
, 36

Necroculture
, 95

Neglected preferences
, 108

Negri, Antonio
, 16–17, 83

Neonicotinoids
, 90

Nibert, David
, 12–13, 134

Nonhuman animals

co-modification
, 40–45

objectification of
, 36–38

speciesism, sentience, and consciousness in
, 38–40

Nonliving, ecology of
, 88–94

Nonreflexivity of simple modernization
, 61

“NooSkins”
, 64–65

Northwest Company
, 126–127

Nylon
, 87–88

Objectification
, 113

in economic theory
, 111

of nature
, 51

Objectification of animals
, 107–110

three-level model
, 110–113

Oxy Low Carbon Ventures
, 93

Paradigm shift
, 113–115

Paradoxically intensive livestock farming
, 114

Parody of amorousness
, 84

People before private land and livestock
, 139–141

Peronism
, 184, 188, 190

“Peronist issue”
, 188

“Pigoons”
, 64–65

Pigs
, 39–40

Pinchot, Gifford
, 150

“Plague of sameness”
, 94

Plants as biotic community
, 167–169

Polanyi, K.
, 116–117

Political violence
, 184–186, 189–190

Politics (Aristotle)
, 48

Pollinators
, 91

“Porcopolis”
, 26

Post-Fordist bioeconomy as disaster capitalism
, 74–76

“Pragmatic” natural resource conservation education
, 47

Precariousness
, 83

Private

enterprise
, 165–166, 174–175

land
, 139–141

landowners
, 141–145

property
, 146

property rights
, 148–154

Productive labor for capital
, 78

Prudham, W. S.
, 63

Public control
, 174–175

Pure science
, 73–74

Quantification of nature
, 36

Radical chains
, 83

Ranchers
, 145, 147–148

Real abstraction
, 59–60, 64, 68–69

Real subsumption of life
, 76–85

Reasonable value
, 116–117

“Reciprocal” process
, 66

Reconstitution
, 129–130

Red Brigades
, 197

Regulation
, 173

Relational Trialogue during Exchange
, 116

Replacement
, 129–130

Repression
, 189

in Argentina
, 192–200

Research on animals
, 108

Reverse speciesist approach
, 13–14

Revolutionary violence, conceptual frameworks on
, 185–186

Revolutionary war
, 189

Robotic bees
, 88–94

Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation
, 146–147, 154–155

Rocky Mountain Wolf Action Fund
, 154–155

Romero, Luis Alberto
, 185

Roosevelt, Theodore
, 145–146, 150

Roy, S. Paul
, 132

Rude, Matthias
, 11–12

Rupture process
, 1, 34

Rush, Benjamin
, 145

Ryder, Richard
, 38–39

Safari Club International
, 146–147

Sanbonmatsu, John
, 12–13, 76

Sand County
, 166–168, 172

Santella, Agustín
, 3–4

Santos, Milton
, 34–35

Santucho, Mario Roberto
, 194–195

Schmitt, Alfred
, 96

Science
, 67, 70–72

Science-based technology
, 60–61

Scientific neutrality
, 73–74

Scientific socialism
, 67

Scott, S.
, 131–133

Segovia, Luis
, 199

Selective speciesism
, 39–40

Self-instrumentalization
, 111

Self-objectification
, 109–110

Self-operating production process
, 60–61

“Self-valorizing value” capital
, 76

Sellfare
, 112–113

Semi-proletarianization of peasantry
, 130

Sensuous external world
, 84–85

Sentience in nonhuman animals
, 38–40

Separation of mind. See Abstraction of mind

Shakespeare, William
, 50–51

Shanks, N.
, 43

Shukin, Nicole
, 11, 16–17, 25

approach to animal capital
, 17–18

Silent Spring (Carson)
, 88

Simon, Alexander
, 3–4

Simple modernization
, 61, 71–72

Sinclair, Upton
, 9–11, 26, 86

Sine qua non condition
, 50

Singer, Peter
, 13, 40

Slaughter
, 112

Slavery and abolition
, 108

Smith, Hamilton
, 77

Smulewicz-Zucker, Gregory R.
, 96–97

Social

division of labor
, 60

life
, 111–112

production and distribution
, 15

relations
, 27

synthesis
, 60–61

Social cost, animal welfare as
, 117

Socialism
, 26–28

Society of appropriation
, 60–61

Sociological theory of oppressed groups
, 12

Sohn-Rethel, Alfred
, 59–60, 69–71

Southern Right Whale species (Eubalaena australis)
, 49–50

Speciesism in nonhuman animals
, 38–40

Sport hunters creation in United States
, 145–148

Sportsmen for Fish and Wildlife
, 146–147

Spraakman, Gary
, 132

Stache, Christian
, 3–4

Steel, Bethlehem
, 81

Stem cells
, 86–87

Stock, Gregory
, 77

“Strains of livestock”
, 87

Strikes,
, 188–189, 191–195, 197

Structural violence
, 83

Subsistence hunting cultures
, 139–140

Subsumption of science by capital
, 71–74

Sulfoxaflor
, 90

Surplus value
, 20

Sustainable development
, 47–48

Systemic thinking
, 50

Szeliga
, 11–12

Taylorist–Fordist methods
, 74–75

Technologization of production
, 70–71

Thorpe, Charles
, 3–4

Three-level model for animal instrumentalization
, 110–113

commodification
, 113

consented instrumentalization
, 111

exploitation
, 113

mass commodification
, 113

objectification
, 113

permitted instrumentalization with Economic Purpose
, 111–113

self-instrumentalization
, 111

Tilly, Charles
, 186

Tönnies
, 17, 25–26

Torre, Juan Carlos
, 192

Torres, Bob
, 13

Toscano, Alberto
, 59–60, 95

Tout court
, 37–38

Transgenic organisms
, 34–35

Trautlein, Donald
, 81

Trees
, 94

Tyson Foods Inc.
, 17, 25–26

Union Civica Radical (UCR)
, 192

Union Coordinating Committee of Buenos Aires. See Coordinadoras Gremiales de Buenos Aires

Union Obrera Metalúrgica (UOM)
, 184–185, 188, 191, 193

United States
, 139–140

sport hunters creation in
, 145–148

United States Environmental Protection Agency
, 89–90

Urban-based environmentally conscious class creation
, 148–154

Urbanization
, 149, 151

Value
, 20, 68

Veganism
, 26–27

Vegetation
, 88–89

Villa Constitución
, 184–185, 190–192, 200

Armed Contentions
, 197

Villazo in Argentina
, 192–200

Violence in Argentina
, 186–190

“Virtual extinction of some species”
, 129

Voltaire
, 38

von Clausewitz, Carl
, 12

Wadiwel, Dinesh
, 12–13, 23

Wage Labour and Capital (Marx)
, 24

Wallerstein, Immanuel
, 132, 184

War against Animals, The (Dinesh)
, 12

Warburton, R.
, 131–133

Warner, Jeremy
, 82–83

Watson, James
, 74

Welsh, Ian
, 94

WH Group
, 17, 25–26

Wheeler, Matthew B.
, 86–87

Whitehead, Alfred North
, 59–60

Wickham-Crowley, T. P.
, 184–185

Wild animal species
, 161–162

Wildlife
, 163–167

land as commodity and right of
, 174–176

of landowner ethics
, 176–178

management
, 161–163, 170

viewing
, 153

Wilkins, Maurice
, 74

Wilson, Tamar Diana
, 3–4

Wise, Steven
, 49

Wolves
, 138, 144–145

increasing populations of
, 154–155

before private land and livestock
, 139–141

Work
, 80

degradation of
, 63

World Health Organization (WHO)
, 43–44

Worster, Donald
, 163–164

Zootechnics
, 46, 47