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Change and Continuity in Americans' Work Day Characteristics, 2019 to 2021

aUniversity of Minnesota, USA
bUniversity of Colorado, USA

Time Use in Economics

ISBN: 978-1-83753-605-4, eISBN: 978-1-83753-604-7

Publication date: 14 December 2023


The COVID-19 pandemic spurred major, and possibly enduring, changes in paid work. In this chapter, we explore the continuity and change in several work day dimensions, including where it is performed, the amount of time spent working, the length of the work day, and who people are with when they work, as well as variation across population subgroups. We use nationally representative data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) to analyze change across the 2019 to 2021 period. While the shift to working primarily at home in 2020 is dramatic and continuing into 2021, working primarily at the workplace remains the modal experience for Americans. We find differences by gender, education, parental status, and age in which workers perform their jobs at home, and we find much more continuity in how much people work and when they work.




This work was supported by Minnesota Population Center grant P2CHD041023, University of Colorado Population Center grant P2CHD066613, and the Time Use Data for Health and Well-Being grant R01HD053654, all funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development.


Flood, S.M. and Genadek, K.R. (2023), "Change and Continuity in Americans' Work Day Characteristics, 2019 to 2021", Hamermesh, D.S. and Polachek, S.W. (Ed.) Time Use in Economics (Research in Labor Economics, Vol. 51), Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. 219-245.



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