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The Impact of Private Tutoring on Higher Education Outcomes: Evidence from South Korea

Workplace Productivity and Management Practices

ISBN: 978-1-80117-675-0, eISBN: 978-1-80117-674-3

Publication date: 7 December 2021


With many countries having reached universal primary and secondary education, parents are increasingly investing in private tutoring as a means of ensuring that their children attend the best schools and universities. However, unlike the returns to years of schooling and effects of school quality on student achievement, the effects of spending on private tutoring have received limited attention. This chapter studies the impact of tutoring on higher educational outcomes using exogenous variation in tutoring expenditure caused by the imposition of a curfew on the operating hours of tutoring institutes in Korea. The estimated effects of the curfew highlight the severity of the college entrance rat race, with a 10 p.m. curfew constraining tutoring expenditure and increasing sleeping hours. I find diminishing marginal effects of tutoring on college entrance and positive effects on degree completion while the impact on college major followed varies across disciplines.




I thank the editor and two anonymous referees for helpful comments on previous versions of this chapter. For helpful comments and suggestions, I am also extremely grateful to Silvana Tenreyro, Steve Pischke, Guy Michaels, Franceso Caselli, Per Krusell, Kangchul Jo, Shan Aman Rana, Laura Castillo, and Federico Rossi.

Declaration of interests

I declare that I have no relevant or financial interests that relate to the research described in this chapter.


de Silva, T. (2021), "The Impact of Private Tutoring on Higher Education Outcomes: Evidence from South Korea", Polachek, S.W., Tatsiramos, K., Russo, G. and van Houten, G. (Ed.) Workplace Productivity and Management Practices (Research in Labor Economics, Vol. 49), Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. 239-276.



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