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Exploring motivation: integrating the ARCS model with instruction

Krista M. Reynolds (Concordia University Portland, Portland, Oregon, USA)
Lindsay Michelle Roberts (University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, USA)
Janet Hauck (Whitworth University, Spokane, Washington, USA)

Reference Services Review

ISSN: 0090-7324

Article publication date: 12 June 2017




This paper aims to provide an overview of Keller’s ARCS (attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction) model of motivational design and explores how three instruction librarians at different institutions have integrated the model into their teaching practices to improve student motivation during information literacy (IL) sessions.


Case studies describe how instruction librarians began to incorporate the ARCS model into library instruction. Three librarians used self-reflective practice and a range of assessment techniques to evaluate and improve teaching practice.


ARCS is valuable for improving student engagement during IL instruction. The authors suggest best practices for learning about and integrating the model and propose instructional strategies that align with it.


This paper fills a gap in literature on practical applications of motivational design in library instruction and suggests best practices for teaching and assessment using the ARCS model.



Reynolds, K.M., Roberts, L.M. and Hauck, J. (2017), "Exploring motivation: integrating the ARCS model with instruction", Reference Services Review, Vol. 45 No. 2, pp. 149-165.



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Copyright © 2017, Emerald Publishing Limited

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