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Physical properties of wood-based materials for liquid deposition modeling

Michael Rosenthal (Chair of Forest Utilization, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany)
Markus Rüggeberg (Chair of Forest Utilization, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany)
Christian Gerber (Chair of Forest Utilization, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany)
Lukas Beyrich (Chair of Forest Utilization, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany)
Jeremy Faludi (Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft, The Netherlands)

Rapid Prototyping Journal

ISSN: 1355-2546

Article publication date: 9 December 2022

33

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to quantify the vertical shrinkage rates and the mechanical strength of three-dimensional (3D) printed parts for a variety of wood-based materials for liquid deposition modeling.

Design/methodology/approach

The overall hypothesis was that a well-chosen combination of binders, fibers and fillers could reduce shrinkage in the Z dimension and increase compressive and flexural strength (DIN 52185, 52186). To test this assumption, eight sub-hypotheses were formulated. Mixtures of the ingredients were chosen in different ratios to measure the performance of prints. For time efficiency, an iterative heuristic approach was used – not testing all variations of all variables in even increments, but cutting off lines of testing when mixtures were clearly performing poorly.

Findings

The results showed that some mixtures had high dimensional accuracy and strength, while others had neither, and others had one but not the other. Shrinkage of 3D printed objects was mainly caused by water release during drying. An increase of the wood as well as the cement, sand, salt and gypsum content led to reduced vertical shrinkage, which varied between 0 and 23%. Compressive and flexural strength showed mixed trends. An increase in wood and salt content worsened both strength properties. The addition of fibers improved flexural, and the addition of cement improved compression strength. The highest strength values of 14 MPa for compressive and 8 MPa for flexural strength were obtained in the test series with gypsum.

Originality/value

This paper is an important milestone in the development of environmentally friendly materials for additive manufacturing. The potential of many ingredients to improve physical properties could be demonstrated.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

The research projects, on which this publication is based, were funded by the German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (2220HV034A) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (01DH20019). Holzmühle Westerkamp GmbH (Visbek, Germany) kindly provided the softwood flour.

Citation

Rosenthal, M., Rüggeberg, M., Gerber, C., Beyrich, L. and Faludi, J. (2022), "Physical properties of wood-based materials for liquid deposition modeling", Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-09-2022-0322

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited

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