We investigate cochineal as a natural dye using microwave irradiation under different factors such as dye extraction, the pH level of dye bath, dyeing time, dye concentration, microwave power level and mordants, and compare the results with those obtained using traditional heating. The dye extraction indicates that microwave heating is a more effective method than traditional heating. The kinetic parameters are examined to determine half-dyeing time (t½), dye affinity (Δµ°), dye rate constant (K) and heat content (ΔH).
Elshemy, N.S. (2011), "Unconventional Natural Dyeing Using Microwave Heating with Cochineal as Natural Dyes", Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 26-36. https://doi.org/10.1108/RJTA-15-04-2011-B004
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