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Appraisal of hand value of denim fabrics

Meenakshi Ahirwar (Department of Textile and Fiber Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India)
Bijoya Kumar Behera (Department of Textile and Fiber Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India)

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel

ISSN: 1560-6074

Article publication date: 13 April 2023




Denim fabric has become a wardrobe staple due to its versatility to be worn in a variety of fashions. This paper aims to study denim fabrics to understand their unique hand by developing a hand evaluation system using computational method. Also, the effect of various washes was studied on the hand and surface morphology of denim fabrics.


Five different denim samples were manufactured with various washing treatments. The Kawabata Evaluation System was used to measure the low stress mechanical properties. Computation method was used to develop hand equations using multiple regression technique in the MS Excel software. The correlation coefficient analysis was done to determine the authenticity of the developed equations. Five primary hand attributes such as softness, smoothness, fullness, flexibility and stretchability were shortlisted by a panel of judges that influence the fabric handle.


The correlation coefficient between subjective and computational total hand values with thermal properties and without thermal properties was 0.88 and 0.85, respectively. The enzymatic wash fabric has the highest total hand value followed by the acid, bleach and stone-washed fabrics.


Although the hand evaluation system is available for conventional textiles like suiting and shirting fabrics, the method to predict fabric hand of non-conventional textiles such as denim fabrics remains an unexplored topic. The stresses acting on denim fabrics are completely different. Therefore, to the best of the author’s knowledge, a novel attempt has been made in this research work to develop a computational model to predict the total hand value of denim fabrics.



Declaration of conflicting interest: The author(s) declared no potential conflict of interest concerning the research, authorship and/or publication of this article.


Ahirwar, M. and Behera, B.K. (2023), "Appraisal of hand value of denim fabrics", Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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