To read this content please select one of the options below:

Human factor analysis of error detection and correction in hand-knotted carpet production process

Gagan Deep Kaur (International Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in the Human Sciences, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada)

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel

ISSN: 1560-6074

Article publication date: 5 June 2023




The paper aims to discuss error detection and correction in Kashmiri carpet weaving (KCW), mediated by cryptographic code, Talim which is held to guarantee accurate information transference from designing to weaving, even after hundred years. Yet, carpets often show errors on completion.


Human factors analysis revealed error emergence, detection and correction in this practice whose task domains are distributed over large geographies (from in-premises to several kilometers) and timescales (from days to decades). Using prospective observation method, production process of two research carpets from their design, coding and weaving was observed while noting the errors made, identified and corrected by actors in each phase.


The errors were found to emerge, identified and corrected during different phases of designing, coding and weaving while giving rise to fresh errors in each phase, due to actors’ normal work routines.


In view of this, usual branding of “weaver-error” behind flawed carpet turns out to be misplaced value judgment passed in hindsight.



The author is grateful to the International Centre of Interdisciplinary Research in Human Sciences (ICIRHS) at Laurentian University, Canada for providing them the requisite research environment to conduct this research. The author is grateful to Homi Bhabha Fellowships Council, Mumbai for supporting and funding this work (except production of research carpets) via two-year research fellowship, and Homi Bhabha Centre For Science Education (HBCSE), Mumbai (both in India) for providing them the research facilities during 2017–2019. Part of data collection, partly-funded, was done as Postdoctoral Associate at National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS), Bengaluru (India) during 2015–2017. The author is thankful to M/s BMW Designers and Abdul Rashid Bhat, both in Srinagar, for permitting me to reproduce the Talim and the graph design, respectively, in the paper.

Declaration of interest.

Conflict of interest: There is no conflict of interest with any of the institutions I have been affiliated with before.

Consent to participation: The informed and written consent has been obtained from the participants to participate in the study.

Funding: No separate funding otherwise than listed in acknowledgments has been obtained. Currently, the work is self-funded.

Data sharing: The work being conducted in a sensitive, conflict area, the associated data cannot be shared in a public repository to maintain privacy of the respondents. However, the same can be shared with the reviewers upon request.


Kaur, G.D. (2023), "Human factor analysis of error detection and correction in hand-knotted carpet production process", Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2023, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles