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We have efficacy but lack infrastructure: teachers’ views on online teaching learning during COVID-19

Arnab Kundu (Department of Education, Bankura University, Bankura, India)
Tripti Bej (Department of Science Education, Srima Balika Vidyalaya, Paschim Medinipur, India)

Quality Assurance in Education

ISSN: 0968-4883

Article publication date: 16 August 2021

Issue publication date: 19 October 2021




The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic led education institutions to move all face-to-face (F2F) courses online. The situation is unique in that teachers and students can make a direct comparison of their courses before (F2F) and after COVID-19 (online). This study aims to analyze teachers’ viewpoints for this unprecedented change.


The study followed a mixed-method approach within an ex post facto survey research design. Research tools were distributed among 200 Indian secondary school teachers following a heterogeneous purposive sampling technique. As the study was conducted during the pandemic backdrop researchers used Google forms and telephonic interviews to collect data.


Teachers viewed positively to this shift from F2F to online teaching-learning (OTL). They were found to have an overall moderate level of online teaching efficacy and where good efficacy prevails there found minimal concern for infrastructure, an attitude showing least concern for “what is not” and more concerned with “what they can do with what is having.” A statistically significant effect of teacher efficacy was found on their perception of OTL infrastructure that supports this strong conviction among few teachers. Statistical analysis revealed for every 1 standard unit increase in self-efficacy, the perceived OTL infrastructure was to be increased by 0.997 standard units which support the strong correlation between the two chosen cognitive variables (r = 0.8). Besides, teachers were not found as a homogeneous group concerning their reported readiness for online teaching yet, different subgroups of teachers exist which may require different approaches for support and counseling.


The paper reports an original empirical survey conducted in India and the write-up is based strictly on the survey findings only. An exclusive analysis of teachers’ views of their efficacy and perceived OTL infrastructure. At the same time, path-breaking in analyzing the chemistry between the two variables which will help improving apposite culture, practice and understanding of the digital pedagogy securing quality OTL in the long run.



Ethical approval: This study was made based on an on-line survey and hence, no institutional approval was associated with this research.

Conflict of interest: The authors hereby declare that there have no conflicts of interest.


Kundu, A. and Bej, T. (2021), "We have efficacy but lack infrastructure: teachers’ views on online teaching learning during COVID-19", Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 29 No. 4, pp. 344-372.



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