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Alternative microwave curing approach for imparting ease and care characteristics and antimicrobial activity to viscose fabric

Kh M. Mostafa (Textile Metrology Department, Chemical Metrology Division, National Institute for Standards (NIS), Giza, Egypt)
A.A. El-Sanabary (Polymer and Pigments Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt)

Pigment & Resin Technology

ISSN: 0369-9420

Article publication date: 15 December 2020

Issue publication date: 12 July 2021




This study aims to use multi-functional viscose fabric that was facilely developed with with respect to ease and care characteristics, reinforcement effect and antibacterial activity by using novel echo friendly antibacterial finish based on citric acid/sodium hypophosphite and the authors’ previously tailor-made poly meth acrylic acid (MAA)-chitosan graft copolymer via alternative microwave curing approach instead of traditional high-temperature cure one.


Viscose fabric was paddled twice in the cross-linking formulations containing different concentrations of citric acid, poly (MAA)-chitosan graft copolymer and sodium hypophosphite to 90 % wet pick up and dried at 100°C for 3 min in an electric oven. Then, the treated fabrics were placed on the disk spinner of the microwave oven and cured at different power (100–800 Watt) for various durations (60–180 s). The fabric was then water-rinsed and dried at ambient condition before use.


Results revealed that the above echo friendly method for finished viscose fabrics was found to achieve relatively high dry wrinkle recovery angle and maintain the loss in tensile strength within the acceptable range, as well as antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as a gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively; in addition to durability up to ten washing cycles. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images, nitrogen content and add on % of the finished fabric confirmed the penetration of grafted chitosan inside the fabric structure. The tentative mechanism for these reactions is advocated.


The novelty addressed here is undertaken with the advantages of using citric acid as a nonformaldehyde, safe and cheap poly carboxylic acid as a crosslinking agent and sodium hypophosphite as a potential catalyst, in addition to the authors’ noncitable multifunctional echo friendly tailor-made poly (MAA)-chitosan graft copolymer for imparting reinforcement and antibacterial characteristics to viscose fabric that uses the pad-dry/cure microwave fixation for progressively persuaded heat within the fabric during curing.

Research limitations/implications

This was done to see the impact of microwave as green and efficient tool with respect to reduction in organic solvents, chemicals and exposer time as well as fixation temperature on the finishing reaction in comparison with traditional pad-dry-cure method.

Practical implications

Poly (MAA)-chitosan graft copolymer as amphoteric biopolymer was expected to impart multifunctional properties to viscose fabrics especially with comparable dry wrinkle recovery angle and minimize the loss in tensile strength in addition to antibacterial properties in comparison with untreated one.



This work has been financially supported in part by National Institute for standards, NIS, Egypt.


Mostafa, K.M. and El-Sanabary, A.A. (2021), "Alternative microwave curing approach for imparting ease and care characteristics and antimicrobial activity to viscose fabric", Pigment & Resin Technology, Vol. 50 No. 4, pp. 367-376.



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