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Evaluation of wood gap fillers composed of microcrystalline cellulose, paper pulp, and glass microballoons

Ebtehal Mahmoud Montaser (Conservation Center, Grand Egyptian Museum, Giza, Egypt)
Nesrin M.N. El Hadidi (Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt)
Enas Abo Elenen Amin (Minia University, Minya, Egypt)

Pigment & Resin Technology

ISSN: 0369-9420

Article publication date: 28 February 2022

Issue publication date: 1 June 2023




This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of using filling materials that are used to fill gaps in wooden objects, and their response to changes in the surrounding environment to evaluate wood gap fillers and choose the best material. As a wide variety of materials, but most of them were unsuitable for filler mixtures. Specific materials were used, which can adapt to changes in wood size in response to changes in humidity. This research discusses the results of experiments that were conducted to determine how gap fillers composed of glass microballoons, microcrystalline cellulose and paper pulp fills are mixed with Klucel G, Paraloid B-72 and methyl cellulose as binders, and respond in various conditions.


It requires using several scientific and analytical techniques to provide a deeper understanding of filling materials characterization, dimensional stability, their shrinkage and study mechanical properties.


The analytical study of filling gaps in wooden objects with different filling materials allowed defining that the main drawbacks of the examined gap fillers were low water resistance, poor dimensional stability upon drying, or exposure to water vapor or liquid water, and fragility. Two types of gap fillers with high mechanical properties and pH values similar to those of wood were found to be appropriate for application on wooden archaeological artifacts.


The importance of the experimental study was to determine suitable filling materials and provide the basic characteristics of filling materials reversibility, workability, dimensional stability, lack of shrinkage, drying, ability to take color and be shaped, stability with aging, compatibility with wood in terms of behavior with changing humidity and non-toxicity. Also, strength properties or their likelihood to deform easily allowing changes in the shape of the wooden object during the movement of wood, either of which may be desirable in specific circumstances.



Montaser, E.M., El Hadidi, N.M.N. and Abo Elenen Amin, E. (2023), "Evaluation of wood gap fillers composed of microcrystalline cellulose, paper pulp, and glass microballoons", Pigment & Resin Technology, Vol. 52 No. 4, pp. 422-430.



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