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Right-first-time dyeing: a design of experiments approach for the optimisation of dyeing-processes using hard water

Saira Faisal (NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan)
Aurelio Tronci (Department of Mechanical, Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy)
Muhammad Ali (NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan)
Erum Bashir (NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan)
Long Lin (University of Leeds, Leeds, UK)

Pigment & Resin Technology

ISSN: 0369-9420

Article publication date: 7 August 2019

Issue publication date: 21 August 2019

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to optimise the dyeing conditions to achieve right-first-time dyeing in hard water. Owing to the persistent water scarcity for more than two decades now, the textile industry in Pakistan is forced to rely on high-mineral-content ground water for use in textile wet processing. Furthermore, the limited amount of municipal water that is at the disposal of the textile industry is also high in mineral content. Thus, on the large scale, water hardness has become an acute problem for the textile processor. In particular, in the dyeing process, water hardness is known to have crucial effects. However, to-date, no systematic study has been conducted on this aspect of textile dyeing.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, 32 full factorial design was used to optimise the dyeing conditions to achieve right-first-time dyeing in hard water. Thus, cotton fabric was dyed with Red Reactive dye (of dyebath concentration at 5, 10 and 15 g/L) in prepared hard water (of hardness at 10, 40 and 70°dH), respectively. Analysis of variance, coefficient of determination (R2) and p-values for the models were used to evaluate the adequacy of the predictive models. The surface plots of the effects were studied to further examine the interactions of two independent variables. Derringer’s desirability function was used to determine the optimum levels of each variable.

Findings

Three levels for both independent variables generate second-order polynomial models to predict the colour strength, lightness, red/green, yellow/blue and total colour difference values of dyed cotton. The obtained predictive models point out the considerable influence of both water hardness and dye concentration on right-first-time dyeing.

Originality/value

Such a finding enabled the dye-mill to produce the correct shade at water hardness of 10°dH and 15 g/L dye concentration, without the need for corrective reprocessing.

Keywords

Citation

Faisal, S., Tronci, A., Ali, M., Bashir, E. and Lin, L. (2019), "Right-first-time dyeing: a design of experiments approach for the optimisation of dyeing-processes using hard water", Pigment & Resin Technology, Vol. 48 No. 5, pp. 449-455. https://doi.org/10.1108/PRT-05-2019-0045

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited