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Preparation and characterisation of melamine-urea-formaldehyde microcapsules containing linseed oil in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone as emulsifier

Amir Khalaj Asadi (Polymer Engineering and Colour Technology Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran)
Morteza Ebrahimi (Polymer Engineering and Colour Technology Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran)
Mohsen Mohseni (Polymer Engineering and Colour Technology Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran)

Pigment & Resin Technology

ISSN: 0369-9420

Article publication date: 3 July 2017

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work was to express a facile method to fabricate microcapsules containing linseed oil with melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) shell in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as an emulsifier. These microcapsules may be used in self-healing coating formulations.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, different types of PVP (i.e., PVP with different molecular weights or K values) were used as emulsifiers and colloid protectors to encapsulate linseed oil in an MUF shell. Moreover, the effect of agitation rate on the morphology of the microcapsules was investigated. Microcapsule morphology and particle size distribution were evaluated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thermal studies were performed using a thermo-gravimetric analysis technique and chemical structure of materials was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared analysis.

Findings

In this work, microcapsules with a regular spherical shape and a shell thickness of about 330 nm were fabricated. The results revealed that the use of PVP in the fabrication of MUF could facilitate the synthesis process by eliminating the necessity of pH control during the reaction. In fact, the pH of the reaction media must be precisely controlled in conventional processes. The yield of microencapsulation was found to be 86.5 per cent when a high molecular weight of PVP (PVP K-90) was used. It was also found that the surface morphology of microcapsules became smoother when PVP K-90 was used. The results showed that the surface roughness and the average particle size decreased with an increase in stirring intensity. Mean diameter of the prepared microcapsules ranged from 34 to 346 μmin for various synthesis conditions.

Research limitations/implications

This work is limited to the encapsulation of a hydrophobic liquid (such as linseed oil) by an in situ polymerisation of amino resins.

Practical implications

The presented results can be used by researchers (in academia and industry) who are working in the field of fabrication microcapsules, in various applications such as pharmaceuticals, electrophoretic displays, textiles, carbonless copy papers, cosmetics, printing and self-healing materials.

Social implications

PVP is considered as an environmentally friendly emulsifier. Therefore, this process is less harmful to the environment. In addition, the prepared microcapsules may be used in self-healing coatings, which helps in reducing maintenance costs for buildings and steel structures.

Originality/value

Ethylene maleic anhydride and styrene maleic anhydride are usually used as emulsifiers in conventional methods for the preparation of amino resin microcapsules. These methods require an intensive and precise pH control to obtain favourable microcapsules, while in the present research, a facile method was used to fabricate MUF microcapsules containing linseed oil without needing any pH control during the reaction.

Keywords

Citation

Khalaj Asadi, A., Ebrahimi, M. and Mohseni, M. (2017), "Preparation and characterisation of melamine-urea-formaldehyde microcapsules containing linseed oil in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone as emulsifier", Pigment & Resin Technology, Vol. 46 No. 4, pp. 318-326. https://doi.org/10.1108/PRT-04-2016-0043

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2017, Emerald Publishing Limited