To read this content please select one of the options below:

Enhancement of styrene-butadiene rubber composites using kaolin covered with metal oxide pigments

Salwa H El-Sabbagh (National Research Centre)
Nivin M. Ahmed (National Research Centre)

Pigment & Resin Technology

ISSN: 0369-9420

Article publication date: 2 March 2015




This paper aims to express in detail the rheological, morphological and thermal properties of unpigmented and pigmented styrene-butadiene rubber composites with new prepared inorganic pigment based on kaolin covered with a thin layer of calcium and magnesium oxides or mixed oxide of both together. These new pigments combine the properties of both their constituents (kaolin and metal oxides), which are a new trend in inorganic pigments called core-shell pigments. The pigments used for comparison are kaolin (K), CaO/kaolin (CaO/K), MgO/kaolin (MgO/K) and CaO.MgO/kaolin (CaO.MgO/K).


The different pigments were characterized using different analytical and spectrophotometric techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray and transmission electron microscopy, while rubber vulcanizates' rheological, morphological, swelling and thermal properties were examined using different standard and instrumental testing and methods.


The study revealed that there is a significant effect of the new prepared pigments on SBR properties, where the optimum pigment loading was 40 phr for CaO/kaolin, while it was 2.5 phr for MgO/kaolin. Studying the effect of different ratios of oxides on kaolin (5, 10 and 20 per cent), different loadings of these pigments ranging between 2.5 and 40 phr were done for each pigment. These modified kaolin or core-shell metal oxide/kaolin pigments imparted new and improved reinforcing properties to SBR vulcanizates.

Research limitations/implications

No research limitations were found.

Practical implications

Core-shell MgO/kaolin pigments are eco-friendly and can replace other expensive pigments that are usually used as fillers in the rubber industry with less expenses and comparable efficiency.


These new pigments are cheap and efficient and can be used in different fields other than rubber.



This work was supported by the Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF) under project number 1242.


El-Sabbagh, S.H. and Ahmed, N.M. (2015), "Enhancement of styrene-butadiene rubber composites using kaolin covered with metal oxide pigments", Pigment & Resin Technology, Vol. 44 No. 2, pp. 57-73.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2015, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Related articles