The purpose of this paper is to reduce the amount of copper in antifouling paints by using eugenol as an additive. Biofouling leads to deterioration of any submerged material. The most widespread method for control is the application of cuprous oxide antifouling paints which are toxic. First of all, the paper describes the effect of eugenol on larvae of Balanus amphitrite (fouling organism) under laboratory conditions and then the preparation, application and performance of different types of antifouling paints in field trials.
Three types of soluble matrix antifouling paints were prepared with different pigments. The first one containing 16 per cent v/v copper, the second with 1.6 per cent copper and the third with 1.6 per cent copper + 2 per cent eugenol.
After 12 months of immersion in Mar del Plata harbour paints containing 1.6 per cent copper + eugenol and 16 per cent copper were the most effective. Although these formulations showed a similar performance, copper + eugenol-based paint contains 90 per cent lesser copper than a traditional copper-based formulation.
The use of antifouling paints with copper + eugenol combination as pigment is a promising alternative due to its performance, low cost and reduction in copper leaching to environment.
The authors thank Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la provincia de Buenos Aires (CICPBA) and Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP) for their economic support. They also thank the Club de Motonáutica of Mar del Plata for the permission to use their marine testing site and the anonymous reviewers who provided useful comments on the manuscript.
García, M., Stupak, M., Pérez, M. and Blustein, G. (2015), "Transitioning to nontoxic antifouling paints", Pigment & Resin Technology, Vol. 44 No. 2, pp. 116-121. https://doi.org/10.1108/PRT-03-2014-0022
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2015, Emerald Group Publishing Limited