Border management, barring illegal foreign workers, and immigrant counseling are three major functions of the National Immigration Agency (NIA) of Taiwan. These functions are composed of traditional “job” as well as social “work” characteristics. In other words, these functions have shifted from a “position”-based job design to an “overall operation”-based work design that incorporates environmental and situational factors. The purpose of this paper is to examine frontline immigration workers in Taiwan in order to determine how the motivational (task-oriented) and social work (social-oriented) characteristics (SWCs) of the immigration work design model influence immigration workers’ organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs).
The authors collected 312 questionnaires, of which 304 were valid, with 230 completed by men and 74 by women.
The results revealed that SWCs and collective efficacy at the group level had significantly positive effects on collective efficacy and service-oriented OCB, respectively. Task-oriented work characteristics had positive effects on self-efficacy and thus on individual level service-oriented OCB, and self-efficacy also had positive effects on individual service-oriented OCB. Both SWCs and collective efficacy had a contextual effect on individual-level outcome variables. Furthermore, the combination of SWCs with self-efficacy had cross-level effects on individuals’ service-oriented OCB.
These findings can enhance people’s understanding of how the social and motivational power of work characteristics can encourage employees to exhibit service-oriented OCB. This implies that the NIA can stimulate individual self-motivation and affect group-level efficacy and service-oriented OCB through the environmental context and social relationship characteristics of border affairs brigades (branches).
Kao, R.-H. (2017), "Task-oriented work characteristics, self-efficacy, and service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior: A cross-level analysis of the moderating effect of social work characteristics and collective efficacy", Personnel Review, Vol. 46 No. 4, pp. 718-739. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-08-2015-0234
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