To read this content please select one of the options below:

Relationship between efficiency of pistol shooting and selected physical-physiological parameters of police

Gurhan Kayihan (KIBEM (Personal Nutrition Training Center)-Physical Fitness, Ankara, Cankaya, Turkey)
Gülfem Ersöz (School of Physical Education and Sports, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey)
Ali Özkan (Physical Education and Sports, Bartın University, Bartin, Turkey)
Mitat Koz (School of Physical Education and Sports, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey)

Policing: An International Journal

ISSN: 1363-951X

Article publication date: 4 November 2013




The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between selected physical-physiological parameters and efficiency of pistol shooting.


In all, 237 male volunteers, studying at a Turkish Police Academy within the age range of 19-20 years old were investigated. The physical fitness levels were evaluated by valid and reliable test batteries. The efficiency of pistol shooting was evaluated by the total points of the bullets which hit the target from 10 m.


Significant differences were found between the sets of students according to shot accuracy groups for wrist circumference, biceps circumference, femur diameter, hand grip strength, flexibility, aerobic capacity, reaction time, balance, coordination, state anxiety level, anxiety variability, average heart rate, maximal heart rate and heart rate changes. The correlation coefficient between the pistol shooting result and change in heart rate, anxiety variability, mean heart rate during shooting, coordination, state anxiety, maximal heart rate during shooting, balance, hand-grip strength, biceps circumference, femur diameter, wrist circumference and flexibility was significant.

Practical implications

This research identified parameters which were important in profiling a good shooter. In addition, this result could be used for choosing marksmen and guiding shooting training for athletes and police in which shooting skills are important. It was reported that joining simple field physical fitness tests and simple devices such as heart rate polar meters may have an advantage in selecting good shooters. These would save police departments both time and money.

Originality value

This is the most comprehensive study to date which has evaluated physical fitness in relation to shooting efficiency.



The authors would like to extend their thanks to Dr Melanie SMITH for her help to edit the language of the manuscript and to the students of Turkish Police Academy for their willingness to participate in this study.


Kayihan, G., Ersöz, G., Özkan, A. and Koz, M. (2013), "Relationship between efficiency of pistol shooting and selected physical-physiological parameters of police", Policing: An International Journal, Vol. 36 No. 4, pp. 819-832.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2013, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Related articles