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A question of style: Replicating and extending Engel’s supervisory styles with new agencies and new measures

Jon Maskaly (Criminology Program, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, USA)
Wesley Jennings (Department of Criminology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA)

Policing: An International Journal

ISSN: 1363-951X

Article publication date: 21 November 2016




The purpose of this paper is to attempt to replicate Engel’s (2001) styles of supervision using data from a new sample and including additional independent variables.


The data were collected from a sample of police supervisors (N=369) at three distinct locations throughout the USA. Bivariate analyses and ordinary least squares regression were used to analyze the data.


The authors find three of Engel’s four supervisory styles and find largely consistent results, with the exception of gender. Further, the authors find strong evidence for persistent agency-level effects.


Supervisory styles are important to consider, especially when trying to effectively control the behavior of subordinates. While this study cannot address the impact of organizational differences, the consistent agency-level effects suggest this as something that should be considered again in future research.



This work was performed under a subcontract with the University of Illinois at Chicago and made possible by grant number 2008-DN-BX-0005 from the National Institute of Justice; contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represented the official views of the National Institute of Justice.


Maskaly, J. and Jennings, W. (2016), "A question of style: Replicating and extending Engel’s supervisory styles with new agencies and new measures", Policing: An International Journal, Vol. 39 No. 4, pp. 620-634.



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Copyright © 2016, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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