The end of population growth in many countries threatens GDP growth prospects, while the rise in life expectancy and an expanding dependent population threaten fiscal sustainability. Policymakers facing these challenges may review policies on migration, fertility and workforce participation.
- Studies show high-density living and violence are correlated, as are youth population growth and civil war; Africa is especially at risk.
- Climate change will make some spaces more liveable and valuable, and some less so.
- Skills mismatches and shortages may rise as major economies' workforces shrink or barely grow.