From April 28, skirmishes between civilians on either side rapidly escalated into heavy exchanges of fire between the two countries' militaries. Occasional clashes occur on this border, but this was on an unprecedented scale and sparked fears of wider conflict.
- Social media 'warfare' has hardened public sentiment on both sides.
- Russia was taken by surprise and appeared unable or reluctant to offer useful mediation.
- President Vladimir Putin's subsequent promise to strengthen the Tajik military relates more to Afghanistan.