To read this content please select one of the options below:

Extending the norm activation model and unpacking laypeople’s misinformation correction process: multilayered roles of awareness, norms and efficacy

Anfan Chen (School of Communication, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong)
Zhuo Chen (HSBC Business School, Peking University, Shenzhen, China)
Aaron Yikai Ng (Department of Business, Communication and Design Cluster, Singapore Institute of Technology, Singapore, Singapore)

Online Information Review

ISSN: 1468-4527

Article publication date: 20 June 2024




This study examines the role of crowd wisdom in misinformation correction. Going beyond fact-checking, we investigate the mechanisms underlying laypeople’s participation in misinformation correction. Drawing upon the Norm Activation Model (NAM), this study conceptualizes misinformation correction as a prosocial behavior and examines the impact of various media and social psychological factors on laypeople’s motivations to engage misinformation correction behavior.


Through a national survey of 1,022 respondents, we explore the norm activation process triggered by the perceived prevalence of online misinformation, which directly and indirectly impacts online misinformation correction intentions via awareness, norms, and efficacy. This mechanism was tested using structural equation modeling.


This study found that perceived prevalence of misinformation, self-efficacy, and outcome efficacy play multilayered roles in shaping misinformation correction intentions. The effects were mediated by the activation of personal norms, which showed the strongest direct relationship with correction intentions. However, these factors also demonstrated direct associations with correction intentions, indicating multiple paths in misinformation correction.


Differing from mainstream fact-checking approaches, this study provides a more comprehensive examination of the mechanisms underlying laypeople’s willingness to engage in social media misinformation correction behaviors. In addition, this study also extends NAM by incorporating media environment (perceived prevalence of online misinformation) into the model, identifying more paths affecting misinformation correction behaviors.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at:



Funding: This work was supported by the Chinese Social Science National Funding (No. grant ID: 21CXW018).


Chen, A., Chen, Z. and Ng, A.Y. (2024), "Extending the norm activation model and unpacking laypeople’s misinformation correction process: multilayered roles of awareness, norms and efficacy", Online Information Review, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2024, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles