The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease that puts strain on health-care systems. Obesity is considered as a risk factor for the severity of infection. Hypotheses also suggested some nutritional supplements may be useful in COVID-19. This paper aims to assess the role of body mass index (BMI) and nutritional supplements on the severity of COVID-19.
This research was conducted on 603 participants (in five groups including: exposure to virus and healthy, COVID-19 positive patients with severity of mild, moderate, severe and death from COVID-19), in age 18 to 65 years. Demographic data and history of nutritional supplements were asked. Anthropometric measurements were measured in a healthy group and in a patient. They were collected by referring to patients' medical records.
The mean of BMI in groups with severity symptoms of moderate (27.57 kg/m2), severe (29.70 kg/m2) and death persons (28.13 kg/m2), was significantly higher than healthy (26.70 kg/m2) and mild symptoms (26.57 kg/m2) groups (p = 0.001). The logistic regression shown, the fourth quartile of BMI was significantly associated with occurrence of COVID19, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI): [OR: 1.81, (95% CI: 1.13– 2.89), p-for trend = 0.55]. There was no significant difference in the percentage of vitamin C, D3, Zinc, Iron and multivitamin supplements intake, between groups, in the past six months (p = 0.11).
This study indicated the role of higher BMI in the occurrence and severity of COVID-19. Researches are not enough to recommend consumption of nutritional supplements for the prevention of COVID-19.
Authors greatly appreciate the support of Vice Chancellor for Research of Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Science.
Funding. This work was financially supported by the Vice-Chancellor for Research Affairs of Shoushtar faculty of Medical Sciences (grant number: 99000020), and approved by the Vice Chancellor for Research, Shushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shushtar, Iran.
Author contributions. H. Mohseni and S. Amini contributed in the conception and design of the research, analysis and interpretation of the data, and also, in the writing and revision of the manuscript. B. Abiri and M. Kalantar contributed to the writing and critical revision of the manuscript. All authors of the manuscript approved the final version before submitting it.
Ethical approval. The research protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee at the Shoushtar faculty of medical science according to the guidelines of the 2013 Helsinki Declaration (Registration No: IR.SHOUSHTAR.REC.1399.015).
Availability of data and material. The data sets generated and analysed are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Compliance with ethical standards.
Consent to participate. A consent form was obtained for all participants before their inclusion in the research.
Mohseni, H., Amini, S., Abiri, B. and Kalantar, M. (2021), "Do body mass index (BMI) and history of nutritional supplementation play a role in the severity of COVID-19? A retrospective study", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 51 No. 6, pp. 1017-1027. https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-11-2020-0421
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