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The effect of fermented goat milk (kefir) fortified with vitamin D3 on total leukocyte levels in diabetic Rattus norvegicus rats

Reny Marlina (Department of Nutrition Science, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia)
Binar Panunggal (Department of Nutrition Science, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia and Center of Nutrition Research, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia)
Gemala Anjani (Department of Nutrition Science, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia and Center of Nutrition Research, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Article publication date: 12 August 2019

Abstract

Purpose

Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus increases inflammation through pancreatic beta-cell destruction. Goat milk (kefir) and vitamin D3 have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can reduce pancreatic beta cells. Increase in total leukocyte count is one of the inflammatory and complication markers of diabetes. This study aims to analyze the effect of fermented goat milk (kefir) fortified with vitamin D3 on total leukocyte counts in diabetic brown rat (Rattus norvegicus).

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental design with pre- and post-test methodology of control and experimental groups was used. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: negative control (K−), positive control (K+), kefir treatment (P1) and kefir fortified with vitamin D3 treatment (P2). The control group consisted of healthy rats; the other groups consisted of rats which were given streptozotocin–nicotinamide injections. Before and after intervention, fasting blood glucose levels and total leukocytes counts were measured. Blood glucose levels were analyzed using the GOD–PAP method and leukocyte counts were analyzed using an automatic hematological analyzer.

Findings

There was a significant decrease in total leukocyte counts in the P2 group (from 26.5 ± 7.7 to 20.4 ± 10.4 [p < 0.05]). However, the decrease in leukocyte count in theP1 group was not significant (from 22.1 ± 9.3 to 16.5 ± 6.2). The decrease in blood glucose levels in theP2 group was −81.4 ± 203.0 but not significant.

Originality/value

Kefir with vitamin D3 fortification can significantly reduce total leukocyte counts in diabetes.

Keywords

Citation

Marlina, R., Panunggal, B. and Anjani, G. (2019), "The effect of fermented goat milk (kefir) fortified with vitamin D3 on total leukocyte levels in diabetic Rattus norvegicus rats", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 50 No. 2, pp. 324-332. https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-10-2018-0290

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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