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Food waste in Indonesian hospitals: a systematic review

Rian Diana (Program of Nutrition Science, Graduate School, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia and Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia)
Drajat Martianto (Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia)
Yayuk Farida Baliwati (Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia)
Dadang Sukandar (Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia)
Agung Hendriadi (Agroindustry Research Center, National Research and Innovation Agency, Serpong, Indonesia)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Article publication date: 8 November 2022

Issue publication date: 5 July 2023




This systematic review (SR) aims to investigate plate waste quantity, determinant factors, and food waste costs in Indonesian hospitals.


This SR was conducted by searching for articles published on the Web of Science, PubMed, Emerald insight, ScienceDirect and hand-searching on nationally accredited journals in Indonesia which consist of 29 journals in nutrition, environment and public health. The inclusion criteria in this review were peer-reviewed articles, original research, research locations in hospitals in Indonesia and articles in English or Bahasa (Indonesian language).


There were 21 studies (17 observational studies and 4 experimental studies) included in this systematic review. Results from 17 observational studies showed that the median plate waste was 27.6% (14.8%–88.7%). High plate waste was found in this review, particularly in pediatric patients and patients who receive liquid diet orally. Staple food and vegetables have a high contribution to patients’ plate waste. Economic costs of plate waste were $0.07–$0.5 per capita per day. Determinant factors of patient’s plate waste were patient clinical conditions, food taste and environmental conditions of hospital food service. Results from four experimental studies showed that meal replacement and smaller food portion intervention could reduce significant plate waste. Nevertheless, there is no conclusive evidence for food waste reduction intervention because of small intervention studies in Indonesia.

Research limitations/implications

There was a high disparity in the quantity of plate waste and economic costs between studies included in this review.

Practical implications

Improving food sensory and adjusting food portions particularly for staple food and vegetables can be done as a way to reduce patient’s plate waste.


This SR is the first review of Indonesian hospital plate waste.



The authors would like to thank to Budi Setiawan, PhD, for his helpful advice on technical issues in this paper.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest associated with the material presented in this paper.


Diana, R., Martianto, D., Baliwati, Y.F., Sukandar, D. and Hendriadi, A. (2023), "Food waste in Indonesian hospitals: a systematic review", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 53 No. 5, pp. 881-900.



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