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Dietary patterns and nutrients associated with metabolic syndrome: Preliminary findings from Jordanian case-control study

Reema Tayyem (Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan)
Rawan Al-Qawasmeh (Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan)
Nahla Khawaja (Department of Endocrinology and Genetics, National Center for Diabetes Endocrinology and Genetics, Amman, Jordan)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Article publication date: 6 August 2019

Issue publication date: 5 March 2020

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate macro- and micronutrient intake among Jordanian adults who have metabolic syndrome (MetS) and those MetS-free.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 154 Jordanian adults aged 20-55 years were enrolled from The National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics in this case control study. In total, 77 newly diagnosed cases of MetS and 77 controls were recruited and matched by age and sex. Dietary data were collected by face-to-face interview using a validated food frequency questionnaire.

Findings

After adjustment of the energy intake and macronutrients, the cases reported significantly higher intake of the amount of protein (p < 0.001), carbohydrates (p < 0.001), fiber (p < 0.001), sugar (p < 0.001), fat (p < 0.001), saturated fat (p < 0.001), monounsaturated (p < 0.001), polyunsaturated (p < 0.001), trans-fat (p < 0.029), omega-3 (p < 0.001) and omega-6 (p < 0.001) as compared to the controls. The results also showed that the intake of some micronutrients was significantly higher among cases when compared to the controls. In this study, three dietary patterns have been itemized; “fast food dietary pattern”, “Mediterranean dietary pattern” and “high-protein dietary pattern”. Only a direct significant trend between MetS and fast food pattern was detected (p-trend = 0.001). Neither significant associations nor trends were detected in the Mediterranean and high-protein patterns with MetS risk.

Originality/value

The study findings highlighted the presence of associations between fast food dietary pattern, total energy and some macro- and micronutrients intake and the risk of MetS among population living in the Middle East. Even though the findings of this study bridge the gap between theory and practice, a large scale population-based study is warranted to confirm these findings.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Deanship of Academic Research of The University of Jordan for supporting this project.

Funding: This research was funded by Deanship of Academic Research of The University of Jordan (Grant number 2016-2017/14).

Citation

Tayyem, R., Al-Qawasmeh, R. and Khawaja, N. (2020), "Dietary patterns and nutrients associated with metabolic syndrome: Preliminary findings from Jordanian case-control study", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 50 No. 2, pp. 253-268. https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-05-2019-0147

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited