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The impact of Prognostic Nutritional Index on mortality in patients with COVID-19

Sebnem Nergiz (Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Ataturk Faculty of Health Sciences, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey)
Onder Ozturk (Department of Cardiology, Diyarbakır Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital, Health Sciences University of Turkey, Diyarbakir, Turkey)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Article publication date: 7 June 2023




Malnutrition has a significant effect on the onset and progression of infective pathology. The malnutrition status in COVID-19 cases are not understood well. Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) is a new and detailed assessment of nutrition and inflammation cases. This study aims to investigate the effect of PNI on mortality in COVID-19 patients.


In total, 334 patients (males, 142; females, 192; 64.5 ± 12.3 years of age) with COVID-19 bronchopneumonia were enrolled in this investigation. Cases were divided into two groups with respect to survival (Group 1: survivor patients, Group 2: non-survivor patients). Demographic and laboratory variables of COVID-19 cases were recorded. Laboratory parameters were calculated from blood samples taken following hospital admission. PNI was calculated according to this formula: PNI = 5 * Lymphocyte count (109/L) + Albumin value (g/L).


When the patients were assessed with respect to laboratory values, leukocytes, neutrophils, CRP, ferritin, creatinine and D-Dimer parameters were significantly lower in Group 1 patients than Group 2 patients. Nevertheless, serum potassium value, lymphocyte count, calcium and albumin values were significantly higher in Group 1 cases than in Group 2 cases. PNI value was significantly lower in Group 2 cases than in Group 1 cases (39.4 ± 3.7 vs 53.1 ± 4.6).


In this retrospective study of COVID-19 cases, it can be suggested that PNI may be a significant risk factor for mortality. In conclusion of this research, high-risk patients with COVID-19 can be determined early, and suitable medical therapy can be begun in the early duration.



Declaration of conflicting of interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Disclosure statement: The authors report there are no competing interests to declare.

Statements on funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Data availability statement: All data analyzed or generated during this research are included in this manuscript. Further research can be directed to the corresponding author.

Author contributions: Design and conception: Onder Ozturk, Sebnem Nergiz. Interpretation, analysis and acquisition of data: Onder Ozturk, Sebnem Nergiz. The approved final version of the manuscript: Onder Ozturk and Sebnem Nergiz.


Nergiz, S. and Ozturk, O. (2023), "The impact of Prognostic Nutritional Index on mortality in patients with COVID-19", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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