Nutritional and quality attributes of bread fortified with cheeseweed mallow leaves powder
Article publication date: 11 January 2023
The purpose of this current investigation is to evaluate the effect of adding different levels of cheeseweed Malva parviflora L. mallow leaves powder (MPLP) on the nutritional and quality characteristics of bread.
Wheat flour was partially replaced with MPLP at 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% levels to obtain the wheat– MPLP composite flour. Chemical composition, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl of wheat flour and MPLP were determined. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of bread enriched with various levels of MPLP were evaluated.
MPLP contains 23.9% of protein, 10.1% of crude fiber and 9.8% of ash, respectively. MPLP had a significantly higher concentration of micronutrients than wheat flour. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids as well as free radical scavenging activity of MPLP were 17.6, 38.2 and 6.0 fold, respectively, higher compared to wheat flour. Protein content in bread samples increased with the addition of the MPLP in a range of 1.2%–6.6%. The increasing replacement of MPLP in the composite flours resulted in progressively higher dietary fiber and ash contents for fortified bread samples. The higher level of MPLP reduced the specific volume of fortified breads. The highest scores for the sensory attributes were noted for bread samples fortified with 2% and 3% of MPLP, whereas the lowest scores for bread samples fortified with 4% and 5% MPLP.
Supplementation of wheat bread with different levels of MPLP resulted in significant increases in macro and microelements of fortified breads.
Supplementation of wheat bread with different levels of cheeseweed Mallow (Malva parviflora L.) leaves powder resulted in significant increases in macro and microelements of fortified breads.
First and foremost, the authors would like to thank Allah for giving us the strength and perseverance to complete this study.
Funding: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Mohammed, A.M., El-Anany, A.M., Althwab, S.A., Alhomaid, R.M., Alharbi, H.F., ALgheshairy, R.M. and Ali, R.F.M. (2023), "Nutritional and quality attributes of bread fortified with cheeseweed mallow leaves powder", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-03-2022-0094
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